|By Chip Temm||
|March 25, 2009 01:00 PM EDT||
The increased manageability, reliability, and opportunities for reuse promised by a SOA can only be fulfilled with an effective governance structure in place to coordinate service creation, maintenance, provisioning, and consumption.
However, many small and medium-sized organizations struggle when starting their service catalog due to the seeming contradiction between the strategic benefits of SOA and the often negative impact that governance can have on individual line-of-business project schedules. How do we get our projects done while building a service portfolio? This article proposes governance structures that embrace the tactical, project-centric nature of much of our work while acknowledging the strategic importance of services.
The Need for Governance
By definition, services are intended to be shared resources. Sharing resources among stakeholders without a system to govern their use can and often does lead to conflicts over resource management and utilization. Services need to be governed effectively to keep ROI high (e.g., by preventing the re-creation of the wheel) and meet SLAs (e.g., by ensuring that services are provisioned with appropriate computing resources to fulfill the needs of their consumers). Governance also enables enterprises to discover new service requirements and adapt to change.
The Need to Deliver
While we need governance processes to make SOA work, the purpose of SOA is to help IT deliver value to the enterprise. However, the enterprise generates revenue (or other value) through its lines of business (LOBs). It's fair to say that LOBs are the engines of the enterprise and technology projects are merely one of the means at their disposal to accomplish this end. Given this direct linkage to the enterprise's most visible efforts, the timely completion of LOB technology projects is critical.
Some books and articles on SOA suggest a complete realignment of the business in order to drive the efficiencies promised by service orientation. In this way of thinking, all development projects should be pipelined through a SOA governance process that enforces standards and ensures the quality of the architecture as the portfolio grows and changes.
Unfortunately, this approach often makes the incorrect assumption that there is no architectural governance in place already - whether formal or informal. Any new governance process must find its place within the already crowded landscape of formal and informal means of controlling technology projects in any enterprise, many of which have grown organically over time, compete for control, and perhaps impede project delivery to an extent not warranted by the value they add.
For small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this may be especially problematic because they may not have the resources to staff such a process in a way that achieves its intent while enabling LOBs to execute their projects on time. Maybe they can't staff a distinct services team. Maybe they don't have enough architects to review every development activity without bringing development screeching to a halt. As a result, the SOA implementation may be undermined as LOBs lose confidence in the long-term vision of reduced costs and increased productivity. They ask the valid question of whether the current delays are having a bottom-line impact that may not be recovered until after SOA is replaced by the next IT buzzword. They haven't heard about Cloud Computing yet... shhhh.
If we assume that development teams are already delivering value to the LOBs they support then they are designing software that works well for the purposes of the LOB but may not be usable by other LOB development teams because it is tightly coupled, lacks the ability to scale, etc. The fact that this is inefficient at the enterprise level is not readily apparent to the LOB. These development teams are not necessarily looking for opportunities to deliver value to the enterprise - they are focused on their LOB. The perceived value of their work is high. Slowing down delivery of development projects to resolve an enterprise-level inefficiency is unlikely to be popular with the LOBs.
Approaches to resolving this dilemma typically involve driving change from the top and parallelizing all service development into a separate specialized team. This is rational and capitalizes on popular approaches to increasing development throughput (if ignoring Brooks' Law). With the CXOs on board, one would expect the outcome to be a well-resourced services team standing at the ready whenever needed to implement services in support of the main development team's efforts. However, the mission of this team is not to provide the best results for the LOB, but for the enterprise. To achieve this, the services team needs to be strategic in its creation of services. It must take the requirements of a given LOB team and research them to determine if they are already generic enough to work for other teams. It must assess the scalability and manageability issues of the service across consumers. In short, it must be careful. Being careful takes time. In a small enterprise, projects have short delivery timelines - often less than a year, very frequently one business quarter or less. How can the services team serve the mission of being careful while delivering in short timeframes?
Make It Work, Make It Right, Make It Fast
The job of governance is to help identify opportunities for increasing efficiency in the development of software across the enterprise. While the enterprise needs governance to help it realize the full value of a Service Oriented Architecture, we need to ensure that the governance is enabling not limiting. The focus should not be on preventing mistakes, but on encouraging success. Kent Beck's famous exhortation "Make it Work, Make it Right, Make it Fast" doesn't start with Make it Right because that leads to a quest for perfection in the absence of a completed work product. What if the organization identified a potential new service during the course of the normal work of a LOB development team, but allowed the team to continue its work implementing the new service for itself (perhaps even as a library) while tasking another team to determine whether the function(s) were worth expending the effort to turn into a service and planning that work? From the enterprise perspective, we would be starting to Make It Right even while the LOB was getting started Making It Work. This seems like the best of both worlds.
Unfortunately, many governance models serialize the processes of governance and development - governance is a gate through which all projects (or even ideas) must pass. The creation or modification of a service has an enterprise impact and so must be carefully considered. It can get crowded at this gate and projects needed by the LOB can get stuck there while the governance team debates the merits of the project functions in relation to the SOA.
When the services have been identified, it is a common recommendation to pass the service requirements on to a team specializing in service creation / maintenance / management. This is another potential bottleneck as the delivery of services to the main project must be carefully coordinated to ensure the project delivers on time. A quality enterprise service that considers the needs of multiple stakeholders can take as long to design, implement, and test as the main project.
Agile SOA Governance
There is without doubt merit in both of the core concepts commonly presented in the context of SOA: the need for governance to coordinate on services; and the advantages of creating a team with skills and experience to focus on services. The problem is in the process that manages work across these expert groups and the line-of-business development teams. Figures 1-3 present alternative approaches to this flow.
In all of the alternatives presented, requirements are collected and passed through the filter of an architectural review panel which serves the governance board for services among other duties. This panel determines whether the project incorporates concepts that appear to be candidates for services. Some of these will have already been created and are planned for use in the project. Some will have already been created, but their use was overlooked by the analysis team. Still others will be candidates for the creation or modification of a service.
This review is meant to be light so as not to impede the flow of development as we make the assumption that we should first Make It Work and that opportunities to Make It Right and Fast will exist down the road. What happens after this filter determines how rapidly the project can be delivered and I would assert how successful the adoption of SOA will be in the enterprise.
Figure 1 presents a fairly conventional linear approach to the problem. If a service exists, its use is required and fed into the design phase of the relevant LOB development iteration. If it does not exist or is inadequate in its current form, the requirements are fed to the services team, which then goes through a standard development cycle of elaborating on the requirements in the enterprise context, designing a solution, developing and testing it, and finally deploying it for incorporation into the LOB development cycle. This can be problematic if the service is fundamental to the application, and development of other parts of the software is dependent on understanding and utilizing the service. The problem arises from the fact that the LOB development team is not aware of the service interface and other characteristics until the completion of the service project. Without careful planning, this may have the impact of serializing the services project and the LOB project, thereby undermining the intended effect of a separate services team.
Figure 2 takes the problem of late information and deals with it by providing earlier communication between the services and LOB teams. In this approach, the LOB team receives the planned interface for the service from the services team after it completes its design phase. Depending on approach, it may get more than just the interface. For example, it may get mocks, stubs, or tests as well. All of these things will help it move forward in developing the software in its system that depends on the service, thus decreasing the bottleneck effect. If during implementation, the interface needs to change, that should be communicated to facilitate the refactoring of dependent code. If the LOB team develops a local proxy or business delegate, this should make it easier to refactor. Later, when the service is fully implemented, integration testing can be performed. Nevertheless, the final integration testing and deployment are dependent on the completion of the services team's work. While we have provided more information earlier, allowing for a more adaptive and accurate approach to concurrent development, the enterprise work may still delay the LOB work.
The final approach depicted in Figure 3 assumes that the LOB development team can develop either a service or library itself locally that satisfies its needs for project work to proceed rapidly without dependencies across teams. Ideally, it will anticipate the creation of a service that will replace its local implementation and hide its implementation behind a business delegate. Whenever the services team completes its work, the LOB team should refactor to replace its implementation with the service. Communication between teams about evolving interface definitions will minimize later rework.
While the final approach is inefficient from the perspective that we have two teams concurrently working on developing very similar functions, both anticipate fulfilling the SOA vision. They understand that this is a tactical decision that minimizes the schedule risk of the LOB while enabling the enterprise to move in the direction of its strategic objectives.
On a project-to-project basis, organizations have to determine which of these processes is appropriate. Some enterprise services are more rapidly developed than others. The capabilities of development teams vary. The impact of a service on the application will depend on how core it is to the application. All of these variables factor into the decision-making process and help the organization devise the best approach.
Identity is in everything and customers are looking to their providers to ensure the security of their identities, transactions and data. With the increased reliance on cloud-based services, service providers must build security and trust into their offerings, adding value to customers and improving the user experience. Making identity, security and privacy easy for customers provides a unique advantage over the competition.
Aug. 30, 2016 08:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,466
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...
Aug. 30, 2016 08:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,017
SYS-CON Events announced today that Pulzze Systems will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Pulzze Systems, Inc. provides infrastructure products for the Internet of Things to enable any connected device and system to carry out matched operations without programming. For more information, visit http://www.pulzzesystems.com.
Aug. 30, 2016 07:15 PM EDT Reads: 308
There is growing need for data-driven applications and the need for digital platforms to build these apps. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Muddu Sudhakar, VP and GM of Security & IoT at Splunk, will cover different PaaS solutions and Big Data platforms that are available to build applications. In addition, AI and machine learning are creating new requirements that developers need in the building of next-gen apps. The next-generation digital platforms have some of the past platform needs a...
Aug. 30, 2016 07:00 PM EDT Reads: 918
Data is an unusual currency; it is not restricted by the same transactional limitations as money or people. In fact, the more that you leverage your data across multiple business use cases, the more valuable it becomes to the organization. And the same can be said about the organization’s analytics. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bill Schmarzo, CTO for the Big Data Practice at EMC, will introduce a methodology for capturing, enriching and sharing data (and analytics) across the organizati...
Aug. 30, 2016 06:15 PM EDT Reads: 338
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - comp...
Aug. 30, 2016 03:30 PM EDT Reads: 3,776
SYS-CON Events announced today Telecom Reseller has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Telecom Reseller reports on Unified Communications, UCaaS, BPaaS for enterprise and SMBs. They report extensively on both customer premises based solutions such as IP-PBX as well as cloud based and hosted platforms.
Aug. 30, 2016 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,042
SYS-CON Events announced today that Adobe has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Adobe is changing the world though digital experiences. Adobe helps customers develop and deliver high-impact experiences that differentiate brands, build loyalty, and drive revenue across every screen, including smartphones, computers, tablets and TVs. Adobe content solutions are used daily by millions of co...
Aug. 30, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,787
Why do your mobile transformations need to happen today? Mobile is the strategy that enterprise transformation centers on to drive customer engagement. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Roger Woods, Director, Mobile Product & Strategy – Adobe Marketing Cloud, covered key IoT and mobile trends that are forcing mobile transformation, key components of a solid mobile strategy and explored how brands are effectively driving mobile change throughout the enterprise.
Aug. 30, 2016 01:45 PM EDT Reads: 671
Pulzze Systems was happy to participate in such a premier event and thankful to be receiving the winning investment and global network support from G-Startup Worldwide. It is an exciting time for Pulzze to showcase the effectiveness of innovative technologies and enable them to make the world smarter and better. The reputable contest is held to identify promising startups around the globe that are assured to change the world through their innovative products and disruptive technologies. There w...
Aug. 30, 2016 01:30 PM EDT Reads: 875
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, will discuss the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
Aug. 30, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,068
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
Aug. 30, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,239
Almost two-thirds of companies either have or soon will have IoT as the backbone of their business in 2016. However, IoT is far more complex than most firms expected. How can you not get trapped in the pitfalls? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tony Shan, a renowned visionary and thought leader, will introduce a holistic method of IoTification, which is the process of IoTifying the existing technology and business models to adopt and leverage IoT. He will drill down to the components in this fra...
Aug. 30, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 420
With so much going on in this space you could be forgiven for thinking you were always working with yesterday’s technologies. So much change, so quickly. What do you do if you have to build a solution from the ground up that is expected to live in the field for at least 5-10 years? This is the challenge we faced when we looked to refresh our existing 10-year-old custom hardware stack to measure the fullness of trash cans and compactors.
Aug. 30, 2016 02:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,875
The emerging Internet of Everything creates tremendous new opportunities for customer engagement and business model innovation. However, enterprises must overcome a number of critical challenges to bring these new solutions to market. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Martin, CTO/CIO at nfrastructure, outlined these key challenges and recommended approaches for overcoming them to achieve speed and agility in the design, development and implementation of Internet of Everything solutions wi...
Aug. 30, 2016 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,263
Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is expected in the amount of information being processed, managed, analyzed, and acted upon by enterprise IT. This amazing is not part of some distant future - it is happening today. One report shows a 650% increase in enterprise data by 2020. Other estimates are even higher....
Aug. 30, 2016 01:30 AM EDT Reads: 3,064
Today we can collect lots and lots of performance data. We build beautiful dashboards and even have fancy query languages to access and transform the data. Still performance data is a secret language only a couple of people understand. The more business becomes digital the more stakeholders are interested in this data including how it relates to business. Some of these people have never used a monitoring tool before. They have a question on their mind like “How is my application doing” but no id...
Aug. 30, 2016 01:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,955
Smart Cities are here to stay, but for their promise to be delivered, the data they produce must not be put in new siloes. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mathias Herberts, Co-founder and CTO of Cityzen Data, will deep dive into best practices that will ensure a successful smart city journey.
Aug. 30, 2016 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,694
DevOps at Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long dev...
Aug. 29, 2016 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,511
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
Aug. 28, 2016 10:30 PM EDT Reads: 4,101