Welcome!

Agile Computing Authors: Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Yeshim Deniz, Liz McMillan, Larry Alton

Related Topics: @BigDataExpo, Java IoT, Linux Containers, PHP, Agile Computing, @CloudExpo

@BigDataExpo: Article

How to Spruce Up Your Evolved PHP Application

Three performance improvement steps

Do you have a PHP application running and have to deal with inconveniences like lack of scalability, complexity of debugging, and low performance? That's bad enough! But trust me: you are not alone.

I've been developing Spelix, a system for cave management, for more than 20 years. It originated from a single user DOS application, and has now emerged into a web application with hundreds of users, used nationwide as the official cave directory in Austria.

Just as many software projects: Spelix evolved from MS DOS to PHP-powered Web 2.0 with increased demand for functionality and scalability

Recently I applied for a job at Compuware. For a presentation during my job interview I prepared a case study about how to monitor and improve performance of Spelix with dynaTrace, a tool in Compuware APM's suite. I found more hotspots than expected, and it was much easier than expected to resolve them. I also killed two birds with one stone: Spelix is really performing now and I've got a cool, new job.

Let me share with you my experiences in that process and the best practices I've applied to bring spelix.at to its current stage.

The Challenge of Software Evolution
When we start to design a new application we have the chance to consider data volume, number of users, traffic, all of these thoughts that drive us in selecting the proper architecture. But not many of us are able to follow that procedure, because we have to deal with a grown application. A system has emerged from a tiny set of tools and scripts, more and more functionality has been added over the years. Optimization processes often concentrate on the PHP core app to create performing database access, processing and content rendering, but that's not enough. Unfortunately other tiers are not included in these processes. Too often on the client side, the brush-up ends after designing a new frontend, using existing JavaScript plugins, and not thinking about application performance. But a slow database or browser code can dramatically slow down your application, even with an optimized PHP core.

In Spelix I have identified six major scopes for performance optimization:

  1. Database
  2. Server Side Data Caching
  3. Client Side Data Caching
  4. Network Traffic
  5. Browser / CDN Cache
  6. Server Side Session Handling

To be more digestible, this blog is split into two. This post focuses on the first three performance improvement steps and the next one focuses on the last three.

Step #1: Optimize Database Access
In the early stages of an application, it may not be relevant how your database access is designed. As long as the amount of data is low, a poorly designed query or missing indexes may not really affect overall response times. Therefore, database performance is rarely a topic that comes up in many cases. Once it has become an issue, it may be rather complicated to be handled. It's important to place enough value in your database design right from the start. Here are some of my lessons learned and best practices:

Interaction of Views & Indexes
I don't want to get into too much detail about creating indexes as many other articles have covered this. But it's rather important to understand when an index is not used: be careful when using views in MySQL!

When should you use views? Views are perfect to create complex queries and store them for further use. Views are commonly used to prepare data for presentation, or even for data pre-selection based on user access rights.

When should you avoid views? While a WHERE clause on a simple view may cause an index to be used, this could fail in complex view, even though the WHERE clause is on the primary key for the primary table. Once your query gets too complex, MySQL creates a temporary table for the result of the view, and then applies the query on top of the view, without any indexes to be used. Be alert when your view contains commands like GROUP_BY, ORDER_BY, or UNION. So what? My key advice on this is: when you create a view, define possible WHERE clauses and check the execution plan in the database by using the EXPLAIN command. If your WHERE clause is on a column in a table marked as select type "primary", you are on the save side to use the view. If it's "derived" or "dependent subquery", your query might not use existing indexes. It could be better to execute the query code from the application. If you have executed the SQL statements directly from your business logic, create a data access layer that contains your query code. Consider executing multiple SQL statements and merge the data in your PHP code rather than using complex joins that may spoil your indexes.

Check and Eliminate Redundant Statements
Check if your SQL executions are really necessary! You might have executed your statement in an earlier stage, is there really a requirement to run it again? Would it make sense to keep the data in your current context instead of re-requesting it? The following screenshot shows the database statements executed by the PHP Application.

A very good metric is "Executions per calling Transaction" which makes it easy to highlight statements, which are called several times, maybe too often per transaction. If that number is greater than 1, you might want to dig deeper into your code and try to optimize that. In this example "select * from sys2" reads the settings for the current user, which is not going to change permanently. There is no requirement to run this query redundantly.

What to look for? Find your query invocations in your code and avoid repetitive executions.

Optimizations? Depending on the type of information, consider caching your data in your transaction, session storage or overall server side cache, as described in the next section.

Seeing the actual SQL Statements in the context of the request makes it easier to optimize executions of database queries.

For steps 2 and 3, and for further insight, click here for the full article.

More Stories By Harald Zeitlhofer

Harald Zeitlhofer has 15+ years of experience as an architect and developer of enterprise ERP solutions and web applications with a main focus on efficient and performant business processes, usability and application design. As a Technology Strategist in Dynatrace's Centre of Excellence team he influences the Dynatrace product strategy by working closely with customers and driving their performance management and improvement at the front line. He is a frequent speaker at conferences and meetup groups around the world. Follow him @HZeitlhofer

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Widespread fragmentation is stalling the growth of the IIoT and making it difficult for partners to work together. The number of software platforms, apps, hardware and connectivity standards is creating paralysis among businesses that are afraid of being locked into a solution. EdgeX Foundry is unifying the community around a common IoT edge framework and an ecosystem of interoperable components.
Infoblox delivers Actionable Network Intelligence to enterprise, government, and service provider customers around the world. They are the industry leader in DNS, DHCP, and IP address management, the category known as DDI. We empower thousands of organizations to control and secure their networks from the core-enabling them to increase efficiency and visibility, improve customer service, and meet compliance requirements.
As popularity of the smart home is growing and continues to go mainstream, technological factors play a greater role. The IoT protocol houses the interoperability battery consumption, security, and configuration of a smart home device, and it can be difficult for companies to choose the right kind for their product. For both DIY and professionally installed smart homes, developers need to consider each of these elements for their product to be successful in the market and current smart homes.
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend 21st Cloud Expo October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center, CA, and June 12-14, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.
Most technology leaders, contemporary and from the hardware era, are reshaping their businesses to do software. They hope to capture value from emerging technologies such as IoT, SDN, and AI. Ultimately, irrespective of the vertical, it is about deriving value from independent software applications participating in an ecosystem as one comprehensive solution. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Kausik Sridhar, founder and CTO of Pulzze Systems, will discuss how given the magnitude of today's applicati...
Smart cities have the potential to change our lives at so many levels for citizens: less pollution, reduced parking obstacles, better health, education and more energy savings. Real-time data streaming and the Internet of Things (IoT) possess the power to turn this vision into a reality. However, most organizations today are building their data infrastructure to focus solely on addressing immediate business needs vs. a platform capable of quickly adapting emerging technologies to address future ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that mruby Forum will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. mruby is the lightweight implementation of the Ruby language. We introduce mruby and the mruby IoT framework that enhances development productivity. For more information, visit http://forum.mruby.org/.
Digital transformation is changing the face of business. The IDC predicts that enterprises will commit to a massive new scale of digital transformation, to stake out leadership positions in the "digital transformation economy." Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, Oct 31-Nov 2, will find fresh new content in a new track called Enterprise Cloud & Digital Transformation.
SYS-CON Events announced today that NetApp has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. NetApp is the data authority for hybrid cloud. NetApp provides a full range of hybrid cloud data services that simplify management of applications and data across cloud and on-premises environments to accelerate digital transformation. Together with their partners, NetApp emp...
In a recent survey, Sumo Logic surveyed 1,500 customers who employ cloud services such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). According to the survey, a quarter of the respondents have already deployed Docker containers and nearly as many (23 percent) are employing the AWS Lambda serverless computing framework. It’s clear: serverless is here to stay. The adoption does come with some needed changes, within both application development and operations. Tha...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Avere Systems, a leading provider of enterprise storage for the hybrid cloud, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Avere delivers a more modern architectural approach to storage that doesn't require the overprovisioning of storage capacity to achieve performance, overspending on expensive storage media for inactive data or the overbui...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Avere Systems, a leading provider of hybrid cloud enablement solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Avere Systems was created by file systems experts determined to reinvent storage by changing the way enterprises thought about and bought storage resources. With decades of experience behind the company’s founders, Avere got its ...
Amazon is pursuing new markets and disrupting industries at an incredible pace. Almost every industry seems to be in its crosshairs. Companies and industries that once thought they were safe are now worried about being “Amazoned.”. The new watch word should be “Be afraid. Be very afraid.” In his session 21st Cloud Expo, Chris Kocher, a co-founder of Grey Heron, will address questions such as: What new areas is Amazon disrupting? How are they doing this? Where are they likely to go? What are th...
As hybrid cloud becomes the de-facto standard mode of operation for most enterprises, new challenges arise on how to efficiently and economically share data across environments. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Dr. Allon Cohen, VP of Product at Elastifile, will explore new techniques and best practices that help enterprise IT benefit from the advantages of hybrid cloud environments by enabling data availability for both legacy enterprise and cloud-native mission critical applications. By rev...
Recently, REAN Cloud built a digital concierge for a North Carolina hospital that had observed that most patient call button questions were repetitive. In addition, the paper-based process used to measure patient health metrics was laborious, not in real-time and sometimes error-prone. In their session at 21st Cloud Expo, Sean Finnerty, Executive Director, Practice Lead, Health Care & Life Science at REAN Cloud, and Dr. S.P.T. Krishnan, Principal Architect at REAN Cloud, will discuss how they b...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SkyScale will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SkyScale is a world-class provider of cloud-based, ultra-fast multi-GPU hardware platforms for lease to customers desiring the fastest performance available as a service anywhere in the world. SkyScale builds, configures, and manages dedicated systems strategically located in maximum-security...
High-velocity engineering teams are applying not only continuous delivery processes, but also lessons in experimentation from established leaders like Amazon, Netflix, and Facebook. These companies have made experimentation a foundation for their release processes, allowing them to try out major feature releases and redesigns within smaller groups before making them broadly available. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Brian Lucas, Senior Staff Engineer at Optimizely, will discuss how by using...
In this strange new world where more and more power is drawn from business technology, companies are effectively straddling two paths on the road to innovation and transformation into digital enterprises. The first path is the heritage trail – with “legacy” technology forming the background. Here, extant technologies are transformed by core IT teams to provide more API-driven approaches. Legacy systems can restrict companies that are transitioning into digital enterprises. To truly become a lead...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Daiya Industry will exhibit at the Japanese Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Ruby Development Inc. builds new services in short period of time and provides a continuous support of those services based on Ruby on Rails. For more information, please visit https://github.com/RubyDevInc.
As businesses evolve, they need technology that is simple to help them succeed today and flexible enough to help them build for tomorrow. Chrome is fit for the workplace of the future — providing a secure, consistent user experience across a range of devices that can be used anywhere. In her session at 21st Cloud Expo, Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, will take a look at various options as to how ChromeOS can be leveraged to interact with people on the devices, and formats th...