|By Gary Kaiser||
|July 14, 2014 08:45 AM EDT||
In Part IV, we wrapped up our discussions on bandwidth, congestion and packet loss. In Part V, we examine the four types of processing delays visible on the network, using the request/reply paradigm we outlined in Part I.
Server Processing (Between Flows)
From the network's perspective, we allocate the time period between the end of a request flow and the beginning of the corresponding reply flow to server processing. Generally speaking, the server doesn't begin processing a request until it has received the entire flow, i.e., the last packet in the request message; similarly, the server doesn't begin sending the reply until it has finished processing the request. We sometimes refer to these delays between flows as "pure" processing delays, distinct from another type of intra-flow processing delay we call starved for data and discuss later. Server processing delays occur as a result of a request message, and therefore always occur within a thread.
Transaction Trace Illustrations
These "pure" server processing delays are generally relatively simple to detect, to understand, and to prove. Transaction Trace's Node Processing table lists all of the observed processing delays for an operation in tabular format; by splitting this table with the Bounce Diagram and highlighting a row of interest, the Bounce Diagram will display the last packet of the request flow and the first packet of the corresponding reply flow, effectively diagramming the measurement.
Use the Node Processing Table split with the Bounce Diagram to illustrate node processing delay
You may also use the Thread Analysis split with the Bounce Diagram; this will provide a view of the request and reply packet flows as well as the processing measurement.
Split the Thread View with the Bounce Diagram to illustrate the request flow, node processing and reply flow
Starved for Data (Sending Node, Within a Flow)
Sometimes, the network interface will be able to transmit data at a rate faster than the sending application can deliver to the TCP socket. For example, a busy ftp server may momentarily interrupt sending a large file because of a disk, memory or CPU bottleneck. We refer to these pauses that occur in the middle of a flow as "starved for data" conditions; there is nothing on the network (no TCP flow control constraint) preventing the request or reply flow from continuing, so the cause must be internal to the sending node. Starved for data bottlenecks occur within a flow (instead of between flows), and are related to the sending node - either the client or server.
Transaction Trace Illustration
These cases can be more difficult to visualize. Since the condition is generally not too common, it is often best to rule out other performance bottlenecks first, before checking for data starvation. When it does occur, the condition has the effect of extending the duration of a request or reply flow, and starved for data delays are included in Transaction Trace's Node Sending measurements. Sort the rate column of the Node Sending Table and split the window with the Bounce Diagram; the Bounce Diagram will illustrate the packets associated with a sending measurement. For those sending measurements where you suspect a starved for data condition, look for idle periods of time where the sending node's flow has been interrupted. Importantly, a starved for data delay will terminate with the transmission of a data packet that resumes the sender's flow, not a TCP ACK from the receiver that might suggest a TCP or application window constraint.
The Node Sending table is split with the Bounce Diagram to help illustrate Starved for Data conditions; note the pause in transmission that resumes independent of any TCP ACK.
Client Processing (Between Flows)
From the network's perspective, we allocate the time period between the end of a reply flow and the beginning of the next request flow to client processing. Generally speaking, the client cannot begin processing a reply until it has received the entire reply flow, i.e., the last packet of the reply message; similarly, the client doesn't begin sending the next (new) request until it has completed processing the reply. (This correlation generally applies to request/reply flows on the same TCP connection.)
Transaction Trace Illustrations
Similar to server processing delays, client delays are relatively simple to understand. In most cases, client delays occur between threads; in other words, after one thread has completed but before the next thread begins. For tasks with thread-level decodes, Transaction Trace's Thread Analysis Gantt chart view can illustrate these delays well.
Gaps between threads are associated with client processing delays
Discounting Client Processing
Note that we assume strict adherence to the definition of "operation" here; click to screen update. If the trace has captured multiple steps - say the user navigates through a series of operations - then the user "think time" between steps will appear as client processing delay, with corresponding gaps between threads. You may still use these multi-step tasks for analysis, remembering to discount client processing delays. Alternatively, you can save each step as a separate task by selecting a sequence of threads from the Thread table.
For more network strategies, click here for the full article.
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, wh...
Sep. 27, 2016 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,639
An IoT product’s log files speak volumes about what’s happening with your products in the field, pinpointing current and potential issues, and enabling you to predict failures and save millions of dollars in inventory. But until recently, no one knew how to listen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dan Gettens, Chief Research Officer at OnProcess, will discuss recent research by Massachusetts Institute of Technology and OnProcess Technology, where MIT created a new, breakthrough analytics model f...
Sep. 27, 2016 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,976
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform and how we integrate our thinking to solve complicated problems. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm ...
Sep. 27, 2016 07:45 AM EDT Reads: 3,229
Ask someone to architect an Internet of Things (IoT) solution and you are guaranteed to see a reference to the cloud. This would lead you to believe that IoT requires the cloud to exist. However, there are many IoT use cases where the cloud is not feasible or desirable. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products at Bsquare Corporation, will discuss the strategies that exist to extend intelligence directly to IoT devices and sensors, freeing them from the constraints of ...
Sep. 27, 2016 07:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,472
From wearable activity trackers to fantasy e-sports, data and technology are transforming the way athletes train for the game and fans engage with their teams. In his session at @ThingsExpo, will present key data findings from leading sports organizations San Francisco 49ers, Orlando Magic NBA team. By utilizing data analytics these sports orgs have recognized new revenue streams, doubled its fan base and streamlined costs at its stadiums. John Paul is the CEO and Founder of VenueNext. Prior ...
Sep. 27, 2016 07:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,954
Technology vendors and analysts are eager to paint a rosy picture of how wonderful IoT is and why your deployment will be great with the use of their products and services. While it is easy to showcase successful IoT solutions, identifying IoT systems that missed the mark or failed can often provide more in the way of key lessons learned. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Peter Vanderminden, Principal Industry Analyst for IoT & Digital Supply Chain to Flatiron Strategies, will focus on how IoT de...
Sep. 27, 2016 07:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,114
IoT offers a value of almost $4 trillion to the manufacturing industry through platforms that can improve margins, optimize operations & drive high performance work teams. By using IoT technologies as a foundation, manufacturing customers are integrating worker safety with manufacturing systems, driving deep collaboration and utilizing analytics to exponentially increased per-unit margins. However, as Benoit Lheureux, the VP for Research at Gartner points out, “IoT project implementers often ...
Sep. 27, 2016 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 3,321
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, provided tips on how to be successful in large scale machine learning...
Sep. 27, 2016 06:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,839
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
Sep. 27, 2016 06:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,613
Information technology is an industry that has always experienced change, and the dramatic change sweeping across the industry today could not be truthfully described as the first time we've seen such widespread change impacting customer investments. However, the rate of the change, and the potential outcomes from today's digital transformation has the distinct potential to separate the industry into two camps: Organizations that see the change coming, embrace it, and successful leverage it; and...
Sep. 27, 2016 05:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,152
SYS-CON Events announced today that Roundee / LinearHub will exhibit at the WebRTC Summit at @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. LinearHub provides Roundee Service, a smart platform for enterprise video conferencing with enhanced features such as automatic recording and transcription service. Slack users can integrate Roundee to their team via Slack’s App Directory, and '/roundee' command lets your video conference ...
Sep. 27, 2016 05:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,445
Digital transformation is too big and important for our future success to not understand the rules that apply to it. The first three rules for winning in this age of hyper-digital transformation are: Advantages in speed, analytics and operational tempos must be captured by implementing an optimized information logistics system (OILS) Real-time operational tempos (IT, people and business processes) must be achieved Businesses that can "analyze data and act and with speed" will dominate those t...
Sep. 27, 2016 04:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,153
The Jevons Paradox suggests that when technological advances increase efficiency of a resource, it results in an overall increase in consumption. Writing on the increased use of coal as a result of technological improvements, 19th-century economist William Stanley Jevons found that these improvements led to the development of new ways to utilize coal. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Thiele, Chief Strategy Officer for Apcera, will compare the Jevons Paradox to modern-day enterprise IT, e...
Sep. 27, 2016 04:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,008
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
Sep. 27, 2016 04:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,108
SYS-CON Events announced today that Bsquare has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For more than two decades, Bsquare has helped its customers extract business value from a broad array of physical assets by making them intelligent, connecting them, and using the data they generate to optimize business processes.
Sep. 27, 2016 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,780
There is growing need for data-driven applications and the need for digital platforms to build these apps. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Muddu Sudhakar, VP and GM of Security & IoT at Splunk, will cover different PaaS solutions and Big Data platforms that are available to build applications. In addition, AI and machine learning are creating new requirements that developers need in the building of next-gen apps. The next-generation digital platforms have some of the past platform needs a...
Sep. 27, 2016 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,807
SYS-CON Events announced today that ReadyTalk, a leading provider of online conferencing and webinar services, has been named Vendor Presentation Sponsor at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. ReadyTalk delivers audio and web conferencing services that inspire collaboration and enable the Future of Work for today’s increasingly digital and mobile workforce. By combining intuitive, innovative tec...
Sep. 27, 2016 03:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,942
Cognitive Computing is becoming the foundation for a new generation of solutions that have the potential to transform business. Unlike traditional approaches to building solutions, a cognitive computing approach allows the data to help determine the way applications are designed. This contrasts with conventional software development that begins with defining logic based on the current way a business operates. In her session at 18th Cloud Expo, Judith S. Hurwitz, President and CEO of Hurwitz & ...
Sep. 27, 2016 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 3,055
Fact is, enterprises have significant legacy voice infrastructure that’s costly to replace with pure IP solutions. How can we bring this analog infrastructure into our shiny new cloud applications? There are proven methods to bind both legacy voice applications and traditional PSTN audio into cloud-based applications and services at a carrier scale. Some of the most successful implementations leverage WebRTC, WebSockets, SIP and other open source technologies. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Da...
Sep. 27, 2016 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,606
The Internet of Things can drive efficiency for airlines and airports. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Sudip Majumder, senior director of development at Oracle, will discuss the technical details of the connected airline baggage and related social media solutions. These IoT applications will enhance travelers' journey experience and drive efficiency for the airlines and the airports. The session will include a working demo and a technical d...
Sep. 27, 2016 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,736