|By AppDynamics Blog||
|February 12, 2014 01:18 PM EST||
The biggest difference between cloud-based applications and the applications running in your data center is scalability. The cloud offers scalability on demand, allowing you to expand and contract your application as load fluctuates. This scalability is what makes the cloud appealing, but it can’t be achieved by simply lifting your existing application to the cloud. In order to take advantage of what the cloud has to offer, you need to re-architect your application around scalability. The other business benefit comes in terms of price, as in the cloud costs scale linearly with demand.
Sample Architecture of a Cloud-Based Application
Designing an application for the cloud often requires re-architecting your application around scalability. The figure below shows what the architecture of a highly scalable cloud-based application might look like.
The Client Tier: The client tier contains user interfaces for your target platforms, which may include a web-based user interface, a mobile user interface, or even a thick client user interface. There will typically be a web application that performs actions such as user management, session management, and page construction. But for the rest of the interactions the client makes RESTful service calls into the server.
Services: The server is composed of both caching services, from which the clients read data, that host the most recently known good state of all of the systems of record, and aggregate services that interact directly with the systems of record for destructive operations (operations that change the state of the systems of record).
Systems of Record: The systems of record are your domain-specific servers that drive your business functions. These may include user management CRM systems, purchasing systems, reservation systems, and so forth. While these can be new systems in the application you’re building, they are most likely legacy systems with which your application needs to interact. The aggregate services are responsible for abstracting your application from the peculiarities of the systems of record and providing a consistent front-end for your application.
ESB: When systems of record change data, such as by creating a new purchase order, a user “liking” an item, or a user purchasing an airline ticket, the system of record raises an event to a topic. This is where the idea of an event-driven architecture (EDA) comes to the forefront of your application: when the system of record makes a change that other systems may be interested in, it raises an event, and any system interested in that system of record listens for changes and responds accordingly. This is also the reason for using topics rather than using queues: queues support point-to-point messaging whereas topics support publish-subscribe messaging/eventing. If you don’t know who all of your subscribers are when building your application (which you shouldn’t, according to EDA) then publishing to a topic means that anyone can later integrate with your application by subscribing to your topic.
Whenever interfacing with legacy systems, it is desirable to shield the legacy system from load. Therefore, we implement a caching system that maintains the currently known good state of all of the systems of record. And this caching system utilizes the EDA paradigm to listen to changes in the systems of record and update the versions of the data it hosts to match the data in the systems of record. This is a powerful strategy, but it also changes the consistency model from being consistent to being eventually consistent. To illustrate what this means, consider posting an update on your favorite social media site: you may see it immediately, but it may take a few seconds or even a couple minutes before your friends see it. The data will eventually be consistent, but there will be times when the data you see and the data your friends see doesn’t match. If you can tolerate this type consistency then you can reap huge scalability benefits.
NoSQL: Finally, there are many storage options available, but if your application needs to store a huge amount of data it is far easier to scale by using a NoSQL document store. There are various NoSQL document stores, and the one you choose will match the nature of your data. For example, MongoDB is good for storing searchable documents, Neo4J is good at storing highly inter-related data, and Cassandra is good at storing key/value pairs. I typically also recommend some form of search index, such as Solr, to accelerate queries to frequently accessed data.
Let’s begin our deep-dive investigation into this architecture by reviewing service-oriented architectures and REST.
REpresentational State Transfer (REST)
The best pattern for dividing an application into tiers is to use a service-oriented architecture (SOA). There are two main options for this, SOAP and REST. There are many reasons to use each protocol that I won’t go into here, but for our purposes REST is the better choice because it is more scalable.
REST was defined in 2000 by Roy Fielding in his doctoral dissertation and is an architectural style that models elements as a distributed hypermedia system that rides on top of HTTP. Rather than thinking about services and service interfaces, REST defines its interface in terms of resources, and services define how we interact with these resources. HTTP serves as the foundation for RESTful interactions and RESTful services use the HTTP verbs to interact with resources, which are summarized as follows:
GET: retrieve a resource
POST: create a resource
PUT: update a resource
PATCH: partially update a resource
DELETE: delete a resource
HEAD: does this resource exist OR has it changed?
OPTIONS: what HTTP verbs can I use with this resource
For example, I might create an Order using a POST, retrieve an Order using a GET, change the product type of the Order using a PATCH, replace the entire Order using a PUT, delete an Order using a DELETE, send a version (passing the version as an Entity Tag or eTag) to see if an Order has changed using a HEAD, and discover permissible Order operations using OPTIONS. The point is that the Order resource is well defined and then the HTTP verbs are used to manipulate that resource.
In addition to keeping application resources and interactions clean, using the HTTP verbs can greatly enhance performance. Specifically, if you define a time-to-live (TTL) on your resources, then HTTP GETs can be cached by the client or by an HTTP cache, which offloads the server from constantly rebuilding the same resource.
REST defines three maturity levels, affectionately known as the Richardson Maturity Model (because it was developed by Leonard Richardson):
Properly use the HTTP verbs
Thus far we have reviewed levels 1 and 2, but what really makes REST powerful is level 3. Hypermedia controls allow resources to define business-specific operations or “next states” for resources. So, as a consumer of a service, you can automatically discover what you can do with the resources. Making resources self-documenting enables you to more easily partition your application into reusable components (and hence makes it easier to divide your application into tiers).
Sideline: you may have heard the acronym HATEOAS, which stands for Hypermedia as the Engine of Application State. HATEOAS is the principle that clients can interact with an application entirely through the hypermedia links that the application provides. This is essentially the formalization of level 3 of the Richardson Maturity Model.
RESTful resources maintain their own state so RESTful web services (the operations that manipulate RESTful resources) can remain stateless. Stateless-ness is a core requirement of scalability because it means that any service instance can respond to any request. Thus, if you need more capacity on any service tier, you can add additional virtual machines to that tier to distribute the load. To illustrate why this is important, let’s consider a counter-example: the behavior of stateful servers. When a server is stateful then it maintains some client state, which means that subsequent requests by a client to that server need to be sent to that specific server instance. If that tier becomes overloaded then adding new server instances to the tier may help new client requests, but will not help existing client requests because the load cannot be easily redistributed.
Furthermore, the resiliency requirements of stateful servers hinder scalability because of fail-over options. What happens if the server to which your client is connected goes down? As an application architect, you want to ensure that client state is not lost, so how to we gracefully fail-over to another server instance? The answer is that we need to replicate client state across multiple server instances (or at least one other instance) and then define a fail-over strategy so that the application automatically redirects client traffic to the failed-over server. The replication overhead and network chatter between replicated servers means that no matter how optimal the implementation, scalability can never be linear with this approach.
Stateless servers do not suffer from this limitation, which is another benefit to embracing a RESTful architecture. REST is the first step in defining a cloud-based scalable architecture. The next step is creating an event-driven architecture.
Deploying to the Cloud
This paper has presented an overview of a cloud-based architecture and provided a cursory look at REST and EDA. Now let’s review how such an application can be deployed to and leverage the power of the cloud.
Deploying RESTful Services
RESTful web services, or the operations that manage RESTful resources, are deployed to a web container and should be placed in front of the data store that contains their data. These web services are themselves stateless and only reflect the state of the underlying data they expose, so you are able to use as many instances of these servers as you need. In a cloud-based deployment, start enough server instances to handle your normal load and then configure the elasticity of those services so that new server instances are added as these services become saturated and the number of server instances is reduced when load returns to normal. The best indicator of saturation is the response time of the services, although system resources such as CPU, physical memory, and VM memory are good indicators to monitor as well. As you are scaling these services, always be cognizant of the performance of the underlying data stores that the services are calling and do not bring those data stores to their knees.
The above graphics shows that the services that interact with Document Store 1 can be deployed separately, and thus scaled independently, from the services that interact with Document Store 2. If Service Tier 1 needs more capacity then add more server instances to Service Tier 1 and then distribute load to the new servers.
Deploying an ESB
The choice of whether or not to use an ESB will dictate the EDA requirements for your cloud-based deployment. If you do opt for an ESB, consider partitioning the ESB based on function so that excessive load on one segment does not take down other segments.
The importance of segmentation is to isolate the load generated by System 1 from the load generated by System 2. Or stated another way, if System 1 generates enough load to slow down the ESB, it will slow down its own segment, but not System 2’s segment, which is running on its own hardware. In our initial deployment we had all of our systems publishing to a single segment, which exhibited just this behavior! Additionally, with segmentations, you are able to scale each segment independently by adding multiple servers to that segment (if your ESB vendor supports this).
Cloud-based applications are different from traditional applications because they have different scalability requirements. Namely, cloud-based applications must be resilient enough to handle servers coming and going at will, must be loosely-coupled, must be as stateless as possible, must expect and plan for failure, and must be able to scale from a handful of server to tens of thousands of servers.
There is no single correct architecture for cloud-based applications, but this paper presented an architecture that has proven successful in practice making use of RESTful services and an event-driven architecture. While there is much, much more you can do with the architecture of your cloud application, REST and EDA are the basic tools you’ll need to build a scalable application in the cloud.
The post Architecting for the Cloud written by Dustin.Whittle appeared first on Application Performance Monitoring Blog from AppDynamics.
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
Aug. 3, 2015 06:45 PM EDT Reads: 559
For IoT to grow as quickly as analyst firms’ project, a lot is going to fall on developers to quickly bring applications to market. But the lack of a standard development platform threatens to slow growth and make application development more time consuming and costly, much like we’ve seen in the mobile space. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Weiner, Product Manager of the Omega DevCloud with KORE Telematics Inc., discussed the evolving requirements for developers as IoT matures and conducted a live demonstration of how quickly application development can happen when the need to comply wit...
Aug. 2, 2015 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 374
The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before – transforming information into knowledge and knowledge into wisdom. IoE creates new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented opportunities to improve business and government operations, decision making and mission support capabilities.
Aug. 1, 2015 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 351
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems, described how to revolutionize your archit...
Jul. 30, 2015 07:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,437
MuleSoft has announced the findings of its 2015 Connectivity Benchmark Report on the adoption and business impact of APIs. The findings suggest traditional businesses are quickly evolving into "composable enterprises" built out of hundreds of connected software services, applications and devices. Most are embracing the Internet of Things (IoT) and microservices technologies like Docker. A majority are integrating wearables, like smart watches, and more than half plan to generate revenue with APIs within the next year.
Jul. 30, 2015 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 163
Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Opening Keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Sandy Carter, IBM General Manager Cloud Ecosystem and Developers, and a Social Business Evangelist, d...
Jul. 30, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,096
In his keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Rodney Rogers, CEO of Virtustream, discussed the evolution of the company from inception to its recent acquisition by EMC – including personal insights, lessons learned (and some WTF moments) along the way. Learn how Virtustream’s unique approach of combining the economics and elasticity of the consumer cloud model with proper performance, application automation and security into a platform became a breakout success with enterprise customers and a natural fit for the EMC Federation.
Jul. 30, 2015 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,183
The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
Jul. 29, 2015 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,311
Discussions about cloud computing are evolving into discussions about enterprise IT in general. As enterprises increasingly migrate toward their own unique clouds, new issues such as the use of containers and microservices emerge to keep things interesting. In this Power Panel at 16th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed the state of cloud computing today, and what enterprise IT professionals need to know about how the latest topics and trends affect their organization.
Jul. 29, 2015 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,220
It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society-changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jason Mondanaro, Director, Product Management at Metanga, discussed how you can plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change the world and it starts with business models and monetization strategies.
Jul. 28, 2015 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,782
Converging digital disruptions is creating a major sea change - Cisco calls this the Internet of Everything (IoE). IoE is the network connection of People, Process, Data and Things, fueled by Cloud, Mobile, Social, Analytics and Security, and it represents a $19Trillion value-at-stake over the next 10 years. In her keynote at @ThingsExpo, Manjula Talreja, VP of Cisco Consulting Services, discussed IoE and the enormous opportunities it provides to public and private firms alike. She will share what businesses must do to thrive in the IoE economy, citing examples from several industry sectors.
Jul. 28, 2015 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,057
There will be 150 billion connected devices by 2020. New digital businesses have already disrupted value chains across every industry. APIs are at the center of the digital business. You need to understand what assets you have that can be exposed digitally, what their digital value chain is, and how to create an effective business model around that value chain to compete in this economy. No enterprise can be complacent and not engage in the digital economy. Learn how to be the disruptor and not the disruptee.
Jul. 27, 2015 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,057
Akana has released Envision, an enhanced API analytics platform that helps enterprises mine critical insights across their digital eco-systems, understand their customers and partners and offer value-added personalized services. “In today’s digital economy, data-driven insights are proving to be a key differentiator for businesses. Understanding the data that is being tunneled through their APIs and how it can be used to optimize their business and operations is of paramount importance,” said Alistair Farquharson, CTO of Akana.
Jul. 27, 2015 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 340
Business as usual for IT is evolving into a "Make or Buy" decision on a service-by-service conversation with input from the LOBs. How does your organization move forward with cloud? In his general session at 16th Cloud Expo, Paul Maravei, Regional Sales Manager, Hybrid Cloud and Managed Services at Cisco, discusses how Cisco and its partners offer a market-leading portfolio and ecosystem of cloud infrastructure and application services that allow you to uniquely and securely combine cloud business applications and services across multiple cloud delivery models.
Jul. 27, 2015 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,917
The enterprise market will drive IoT device adoption over the next five years. In his session at @ThingsExpo, John Greenough, an analyst at BI Intelligence, division of Business Insider, analyzed how companies will adopt IoT products and the associated cost of adopting those products. John Greenough is the lead analyst covering the Internet of Things for BI Intelligence- Business Insider’s paid research service. Numerous IoT companies have cited his analysis of the IoT. Prior to joining BI Intelligence, he worked analyzing bank technology for Corporate Insight and The Clearing House Payment...
Jul. 26, 2015 09:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,600
"Optimal Design is a technology integration and product development firm that specializes in connecting devices to the cloud," stated Joe Wascow, Co-Founder & CMO of Optimal Design, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
Jul. 25, 2015 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 408
SYS-CON Events announced today that CommVault has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. A singular vision – a belief in a better way to address current and future data management needs – guides CommVault in the development of Singular Information Management® solutions for high-performance data protection, universal availability and simplified management of data on complex storage networks. CommVault's exclusive single-platform architecture gives companies unp...
Jul. 25, 2015 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,982
Electric Cloud and Arynga have announced a product integration partnership that will bring Continuous Delivery solutions to the automotive Internet-of-Things (IoT) market. The joint solution will help automotive manufacturers, OEMs and system integrators adopt DevOps automation and Continuous Delivery practices that reduce software build and release cycle times within the complex and specific parameters of embedded and IoT software systems.
Jul. 25, 2015 12:15 PM EDT Reads: 490
"ciqada is a combined platform of hardware modules and server products that lets people take their existing devices or new devices and lets them be accessible over the Internet for their users," noted Geoff Engelstein of ciqada, a division of Mars International, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
Jul. 25, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,567
Internet of Things is moving from being a hype to a reality. Experts estimate that internet connected cars will grow to 152 million, while over 100 million internet connected wireless light bulbs and lamps will be operational by 2020. These and many other intriguing statistics highlight the importance of Internet powered devices and how market penetration is going to multiply many times over in the next few years.
Jul. 25, 2015 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,510