Welcome!

Agile Computing Authors: Derek Weeks, Liz McMillan, Jonathan Fries, William Schmarzo, John Esposito

Related Topics: Microservices Expo, Java IoT, Industrial IoT, Microsoft Cloud, IoT User Interface, Agile Computing

Microservices Expo: Article

The Odd Couple: Marrying Agile and Waterfall

Interfacing between Linear Waterfall and Agile Approaches

This article depicts the best practice approach for integrating Agile approaches and specifically Scrum development with traditional overarching linear approaches, specifically waterfall methodology. The agile PMO, properly defined, can be positioned to secure Agile-Scrum benefits while maintaining the necessary overarching control.

The challenge
Over the last two decades, various Agile approaches have been introduced and practiced. Of these, in last 5 to 7 years, Scrum has gained the most popularity resulting from a combination of simplicity, ease of use, and effective public relations. Scrum success in software development organizations has been a powerful driver for roll outs across products, industries and businesses. As described, this was exacerbated by a focused marketing effort from Scrum evangelists. Unfortunately, most of these organizations were not structured in a way that supports the Agile-Scrum approach and methods. Even more so, scrum in its raw and pure form is not suitable for the majority of organizations.

The first wave of failed Agile-Scrum implementations brought about an even stricter admonition, based on an unwavering belief from Scrum zealots. The main assertion has been that failed implementations are a result of partial embracing of the true scrum spirit and the full benefits of the approach can only be attained if the entire organization is reengineered. This fanatical attitude left many project teams across organizations big and small, struggling with their already idealistic implementations. Some have been figuring out on their own, how to combine the contemporary and traditional worlds. Other teams have completely abandoned the Agile-Scrum concepts reverting back to the traditional linear waterfall approach and method. Yet other teams, ridden with guilt, manage Scrum by name only, and hiss vehemently at any project management proponent who is unfortunate enough to advise on re-embracing Agile in a more cognizant approach.

The concepts which are presented and embodied in Agile-Scrum are too good to be ignored; however implementing it outside pure software development requires adaptation.

Complex scenarios for Agile
The main hurdle in achieving the benefits of Agile- Scrum outside software development is integrating it with existing control mechanisms. These control mechanisms are stipulated due to various organizational prerequisites and are normally actualized by using the Linear Waterfall approach and methodology. Four of these typical organizational prerequisites are depicted below:

  • Big global corporates: in these hierarchical matrix organizations, top down portfolio control is the rule of the day. The free spirited agile approach has a tough time adjusting to the rigorous controls. Specifically the inherent Agile plan-free concepts, make Agile-Scrum difficult for the organization to swallow.
  • Highly regulated industries: some industries are required by compliance and governance bodies to have a strict binding control mechanism. These can be for example medical equipment, aircraft, and pharmaceuticals research and product development business units. While individual teams might operate Agile-Scrum, the development process must follow a rigid Linear Waterfall approach method for traceability and governance.
  • Complex predefined products: some integrated products which include both hardware, software, imbedded and more are developed as a contract with an end customer under a predefined set of requirements. In these cases the degree of requirement flexibility is small, though larger than what is anticipated initially. The concept of a fully flexible backlog of Agile-Scrum suffers considerably in these cases.
  • Generic IT departments: much of the daily and weekly activities in maintenance driven IT departments is ad hoc. Changes to the daily schedules are numerous and immediate. Constant interferences in the teams work are the norm. The concept of time boxing and no interference is difficult to maintain in these situations.

Naturally - many times the four discrete categories detailed above, actually mix; so it is common to find a complex product in a global big corporate which is required to comply with firm regulation.

Based on practical experience, the recommended method to tackle these scenarios and others is by empowering the Agile PMO to act as an enabler, driver and translator between the emerging Agile-Scrum teams and the Linear Waterfall elements.

Refer to the table below for specific guidelines

The Agile PMO - leading the hybrid organization - guidelines

Scenario

Challenge

Possible solution

Comments

Insights

Big global corporates

Strict controls manifested in Linear Waterfall

The Agile PMO is the buffer between Agile-Scrum teams and the Linear view

Burn down charts are translated to phases for control;

Requirement traceability done by PMO architect;

Agile PMO maintains the dictionary between sprint planning, execution and the phase gating mechanism

Product owners can be part of the Agile PMO;

Project initiating and closing managed by the PMO

Scenario

Challenge

Possible solution

Comments

Insights

Highly regulated industries

Strict compliance and paper trail requirement including product risk analysis

The Agile PMO is also resourced by administrative staff to ensure compliance with regulations

Product risk is managed on a lifecycle view with members of the Scrum-Agile team;

Backlog populated by Non-functional yet critical requirement and owned by the Agile PMO

Agile PMO staff maintains traceability of these requirements.

Necessary documentation is part of the backlog

The added administrative effort handled by the PMO is compensated by the increased velocity of the Agile teams.

Administrative PMO staff can also be non-functional product owners to ensure compliance aspects

Scenario

Challenge

Possible solution

Comments

Insights

Complex predefined products

Limited flexibility in product scope tends to deteriorate  Agile implementations to Agile by name only; Also, hardware elements of product can't be performed in an Agile approach

The Agile PMO owns the backlog interfacing with the various components of product development - managing a hybrid Agile-Linear project

This is probably the most difficult and tricky scenario to tackle;

It requires technical as well as leadership propensity and know-how.

Experience shows that by investigating creatively - Agile concepts can be implemented in rigid hardware development environments

Also - rigid product requirements still allow usually 20% flexibility

the most value added can be reaped in this scenario by developing a customized mixed approach;

Agile stage deliveries can be used to increase flexibility.

Concepts of incremental deliveries may sometimes not be achievable in all product aspects

Scenario

Challenge

Possible solution

Comments

Insights

Generic IT departments

Constant changes to team's work, inability to see the big picture due to ad-hoc work interfering;

missing a true product owner

The Agile PMO substitutes the product owner role in acting as a buffer to oncoming requests also protecting effort to reasonable levels

Many disheartened IT departments have become bitter when trying to use Agile to their development and ongoing work; the result has been fatigue laden team, viewing Agile as a vicious manipulation to increase output without genuine management support; more than a single project management approach can be practiced

Noticeably, Kanban works better for these environments;

Time boxing still makes sense, however a certain predefined buffer for ad-hoc work should be built into each sprint; Sprint durations should be flexible

 

 

Important best practices to remember that go hand in hand with the Agile PMO:

  • Implementing Agile-Scrum as a restricting admonition is exploiting the adaptive nature of Agile
  • There is no one right way - no one size fits them all;
  • There is no silver bullet - you can create what works for you;
  • Being agile and adaptive also allows being flexible with how one uses the methods, process and Methodology;
  • Time boxing is great as long as you are flexible to change the durations of the time box if necessary;
  • Sometimes the client isn't directly available, in these cases marketing and product management are a proper alternate;
  • Arbitrary rules don't complete projects, people do! Empower your team and yourself to choose the appropriate mix of approaches that enable product delivery.

Summary
In my book about the Agile PMO I describe how PMOs can succeed only if they create and enhance value through smart portfolio selection (more about that in a future white paper). With the emerging of Agile approaches and specifically Scrum methods new opportunities have become apparent. Integrating them into an existing control structure - typically presented by a waterfall lifecycle - can be frustrating. We have defined a new key player - the Agile PMO which can be positioned to create a transformation / translation layer between the approached and methods, contributing to higher success levels of these integrations.

 

The Agile PMO Michael Nir

More Stories By Michael Nir

Michael Nir - President of Sapir Consulting - (M.Sc. Engineering) has been providing operational, organizational and management consulting and training for over 15 years. He is passionate about Gestalt theory and practice, which complements his engineering background and contributes to his understanding of individual and team dynamics in business. Michael authored 8 Bestsellers in the fields of Influencing, Agile, Teams, Leadership and others. Michael's experience includes significant expertise in the telecoms, hi-tech, software development, R&D environments and petrochemical & infrastructure industries. He develops creative and innovative solutions in project and product management, process improvement, leadership, and team building programs. Michael's professional background is analytical and technical; however, he has a keen interest in human interactions and behaviors. He holds two engineering degrees from the prestigious Technion Institute of Technology: a Bachelor of civil engineering and Masters of Industrial engineering. He has balanced his technical side with the extensive study and practice of Gestalt Therapy and "Instrumental Enrichment," a philosophy of mediated learning. In his consulting and training engagements, Michael combines both the analytical and technical world with his focus on people, delivering unique and meaningful solutions, and addressing whole systems.

@ThingsExpo Stories
A critical component of any IoT project is the back-end systems that capture data from remote IoT devices and structure it in a way to answer useful questions. Traditional data warehouse and analytical systems are mature technologies that can be used to handle large data sets, but they are not well suited to many IoT-scale products and the need for real-time insights. At Fuze, we have developed a backend platform as part of our mobility-oriented cloud service that uses Big Data-based approache...
The IoTs will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and share the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the development proc...
trust and privacy in their ecosystem. Assurance and protection of device identity, secure data encryption and authentication are the key security challenges organizations are trying to address when integrating IoT devices. This holds true for IoT applications in a wide range of industries, for example, healthcare, consumer devices, and manufacturing. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lancen LaChance, vice president of product management, IoT solutions at GlobalSign, will teach IoT developers how t...
The IETF draft standard for M2M certificates is a security solution specifically designed for the demanding needs of IoT/M2M applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Brian Romansky, VP of Strategic Technology at TrustPoint Innovation, will explain how M2M certificates can efficiently enable confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity on highly constrained devices.
Manufacturers are embracing the Industrial Internet the same way consumers are leveraging Fitbits – to improve overall health and wellness. Both can provide consistent measurement, visibility, and suggest performance improvements customized to help reach goals. Fitbit users can view real-time data and make adjustments to increase their activity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mark Bernardo Professional Services Leader, Americas, at GE Digital, will discuss how leveraging the Industrial Interne...
There is an ever-growing explosion of new devices that are connected to the Internet using “cloud” solutions. This rapid growth is creating a massive new demand for efficient access to data. And it’s not just about connecting to that data anymore. This new demand is bringing new issues and challenges and it is important for companies to scale for the coming growth. And with that scaling comes the need for greater security, gathering and data analysis, storage, connectivity and, of course, the...
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to massively disrupt IoT. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, AJ Abdallat, CEO of Beyond AI, will discuss what the five main drivers are in Artificial Intelligence that could shape the future of the Internet of Things. AJ Abdallat is CEO of Beyond AI. He has over 20 years of management experience in the fields of artificial intelligence, sensors, instruments, devices and software for telecommunications, life sciences, environmental monitoring, process...
Increasing IoT connectivity is forcing enterprises to find elegant solutions to organize and visualize all incoming data from these connected devices with re-configurable dashboard widgets to effectively allow rapid decision-making for everything from immediate actions in tactical situations to strategic analysis and reporting. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Shikhir Singh, Senior Developer Relations Manager at Sencha, will discuss how to create HTML5 dashboards that interact with IoT devic...
We're entering the post-smartphone era, where wearable gadgets from watches and fitness bands to glasses and health aids will power the next technological revolution. With mass adoption of wearable devices comes a new data ecosystem that must be protected. Wearables open new pathways that facilitate the tracking, sharing and storing of consumers’ personal health, location and daily activity data. Consumers have some idea of the data these devices capture, but most don’t realize how revealing and...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ericsson has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Ericsson is a world leader in the rapidly changing environment of communications technology – providing equipment, software and services to enable transformation through mobility. Some 40 percent of global mobile traffic runs through networks we have supplied. More than 1 billion subscribers around the world re...
We’ve worked with dozens of early adopters across numerous industries and will debunk common misperceptions, which starts with understanding that many of the connected products we’ll use over the next 5 years are already products, they’re just not yet connected. With an IoT product, time-in-market provides much more essential feedback than ever before. Innovation comes from what you do with the data that the connected product provides in order to enhance the customer experience and optimize busi...
The increasing popularity of the Internet of Things necessitates that our physical and cognitive relationship with wearable technology will change rapidly in the near future. This advent means logging has become a thing of the past. Before, it was on us to track our own data, but now that data is automatically available. What does this mean for mHealth and the "connected" body? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Lisa Calkins, CEO and co-founder of Amadeus Consulting, will discuss the impact of wea...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Klein, CEO and Co-founder of Rachio, will discuss next generation communities that are using IoT to create more sustainable, intelligent communities. One example is Sterling Ranch, a 10,000 home development that – with the help of Siemens – will integrate IoT technology into the community to provide residents with energy and water savings as well as intelligent security. Everything from stop lights to sprinkler systems to building infrastructures will run ef...
Digital payments using wearable devices such as smart watches, fitness trackers, and payment wristbands are an increasing area of focus for industry participants, and consumer acceptance from early trials and deployments has encouraged some of the biggest names in technology and banking to continue their push to drive growth in this nascent market. Wearable payment systems may utilize near field communication (NFC), radio frequency identification (RFID), or quick response (QR) codes and barcodes...
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...
You deployed your app with the Bluemix PaaS and it's gaining some serious traction, so it's time to make some tweaks. Did you design your application in a way that it can scale in the cloud? Were you even thinking about the cloud when you built the app? If not, chances are your app is going to break. Check out this webcast to learn various techniques for designing applications that will scale successfully in Bluemix, for the confidence you need to take your apps to the next level and beyond.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus inter...
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, will provide tips on how to be successful in large scale machine lear...
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Fusion, a leading provider of cloud services, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Fusion, a leading provider of integrated cloud solutions to small, medium and large businesses, is the industry's single source for the cloud. Fusion's advanced, proprietary cloud service platform enables the integration of leading edge solutions in the cloud, including cloud...