|By Kaazing Blog||
|March 1, 2012 02:00 AM EST||
This is a two-part blog post that discusses HTML5 WebSocket and security. In this, the first post, I will talk about the security benefits that come from being HTTP-compatible and the WebSocket standard itself. In the second post (coming soon) I will highlight some of the extra security capabilities that Kaazing WebSocket Gateway offers, things that real-world WebSocket applications will want to be fully secure.
A WebSocket connection starts its life as an HTTP handshake, which then upgrades in-place to speak the WebSocket wire protocol. As such, many existing HTTP security mechanisms also apply to a WebSocket connection — one of the reasons why the WebSocket standard deliberately chose the strategy of being HTTP compatible.
Unified HTTP and WebSocket Security
Thanks to the HTTP/WebSocket unified security model, the following is a list of some standard HTTP security methods that can be applied to a WebSocket connection. Remember this is not something you get for free: each WebSocket gateway/server needs to implement any of these they consider important. (Kaazing’s Gateway supports all of them, and more.)
- Same encryption as HTTPS using TLS/SSL
The way you do encryption with WebSocket is the same as you do for HTTP. With HTTPS, the client and server first establish a secure envelope (connection) and only then begin the HTTP protocol. In exactly the same way, WebSocket Secure (WSS) first establishes a secure envelope, then begins the HTTP handshake, and then the upgrade to the WebSocket wire protocol.Right up until the upgrade to the WebSocket protocol takes place, there is no difference between HTTPS and WSS, they are identical. The benefit of this is that if you know how to configure HTTPS for encrypted communication, then you also know how to configure WSS for encrypted WebSocket communication.
- Origin-based security
Just like HTTP, a WebSocket endpoint is defined by a URL which means origin-based security can be applied (as you would for HTTP). WebSocket always uses the origin security model, as defined by RFC 6454. If your WebSocket gateway/server can be configured for origin-based access control then you can do cross-origin WebSocket connections in a secure way.Cross-origin communication has traditionally been a bane of Web development because it opens the door to malicious cross-scripting attacks. But thanks to the standard origin security model it can now be done securely. This is another good example of an HTTP security capability that can also apply to WebSocket due to being HTTP-compatible.Be sure to pick a WebSocket gateway/server which supports origin-based security because it lets you partition your application over different hosts or even domains, giving you architectural flexibility. (Or perhaps you want a WebSocket-based service that other sites can access securely, such as for mashup applications, for example).Just like existing HTTP Ajax/Comet applications, without cross-origin support you are constrained to either having your WebSocket connection forced to connect to the same origin only or you have to endure security risks when making cross-origin connections.
- Cookie-based interaction pattern
Incidentally, given that Kaazing was a major contributor to the original WebSocket wire protocol specification, many of these security benefits derive from Kaazing’s submissions to the standard.
Native WebSocket Security
Here are some non-HTTP-related security features defined by the WebSocket standard itself.
- Subprotocol validation
The WebSocket protocol was designed as a transport layer for higher-level protocols (just like TCP, but for the Web). For example, you can transport existing protocols like XMPP, AMQP, Stomp, etc over the Web, through firewalls and proxies, using the standard ports 80/443.The Sec-WebSocket-Protocol header specifies what subprotocol (the application-level protocol layered over the WebSocket protocol) is negotiated between the client and the WebSocket gateway/server.A WebSocket connection can navigate through HTTP communication ports advertising the shape of the protocol that is going to be spoken on top of WebSocket. Therefore a gateway/server, or intermediaries, can properly assess that the traffic flowing is compliant or put security policies in place.This protocol-level inspection allows security policies to go deeper than typical HTTP packet-level inspection. The kind of deep packet inspection usually reserved for LANs and WANs now applies equally well over the Web with WebSocket.This is one of the advantages of using WebSocket as a transport layer for higher-level protocols rather than sending proprietary messages directly over the WebSocket connection.
- Client-to-Server Masking
Each WebSocket frame — think of a frame as a message — is automatically masked to prevent old or badly-implemented intermediaries from accidentally or deliberately causing issues based on bytes in the payload. Unlike HTTP, code on the client cannot successfully predict the precise bytes used to represent the payload of messages sent to the WebSocket gateway/server.Each frame contains the masking key so WebSocket-aware intermediaries can unmask the messages for protocol or packet inspection, or to enforce security policies, etc.
Don’t Forget Fallback
When thinking about WebSocket and security, another important consideration is fallback. Many WebSocket gateways/servers have fallback for cases when a WebSocket connection cannot be established. This is a practical concern since you have to deal with old browsers, intermediaries that interfere, etc. A WebSocket application can expect to have many users relying on fallback methods in the real world.
Therefore it is important that any security features you use for WebSocket also apply to the fallback when a WebSocket connection cannot be established. Moreover it should be completely transparent to your developers. They don’t want to have to write different code for those cases where fallback kicks in.
For example, many WebSocket providers will fall back to Comet or Ajax when a WebSocket connection cannot be made. But what happens if you utilize cross-origin policies? (And you should.) Will they be honored by the this fallback method…?
Another popular fallback strategy when a WebSocket connection isn’t possible is to use Flash Sockets. But what happens, for example, if you are using cookie-based or HTTP authentication? (And you should!) Will the Flash connectivity seamlessly and transparently respond to such a challenge…? Or are your application developers going to have to code around this scenario?
Since this article is about security, it should be pointed out that using Flash Sockets as a fallback is a potential security risk. They grant the right for application code served by the source origin to open a raw TCP connection cross-origin to the HTTP port of the target origin. This makes it possible for malicious sites to dynamically load some Flash which has the ability to attack the HTTP port directly. WebSocket and HTTP preserve the security model of the Web, Flash doesn’t.
A WebSocket application can be made secure because various standards provide for that possibility. And since WebSocket is HTTP-compatible it benefits from many of the same security techniques that can be applied to HTTP. It is up to each WebSocket gateway/server to implement some or all of these standard security protections.
Just like you would pick a web server or application server with the security features you need, you need to pick a WebSocket gateway/server with the security features you need. Any WebSocket vendor that only has a few or none of them is not serious about security.
If you are building a real-world or enterprise WebSocket-based application then think about your security needs early. It’s not something you want to “bolt on” later because that will mean having to change your architecture or write a lot of extra code. An enterprise WebSocket gateway/server will have security built into the architecture that you can simply configure when you’re ready.
Because when you don’t take security seriously, your customers won’t take you seriously.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Dataloop.IO, an innovator in cloud IT-monitoring whose products help organizations save time and money, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Dataloop.IO is an emerging software company on the cutting edge of major IT-infrastructure trends including cloud computing and microservices. The company, founded in the UK but now based in San Fran...
Feb. 19, 2017 04:15 PM EST Reads: 1,884
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sudarshan Krishnamurthi, a Senior Manager, Business Strategy, at Cisco Systems, will discuss how IT and operational technology (OT) work together, as opposed to being in separate siloes as once was traditional. Attendees will learn how to fully leverage the power of IoT in their organization by bringing the two sides together and bridging the communication gap. He will also look at what good leadership must entail in order to accomplish this, and how IT managers ca...
Feb. 19, 2017 02:30 PM EST Reads: 1,024
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business – from apparel to energy – is being rewritten by software. From ...
Feb. 19, 2017 02:00 PM EST Reads: 870
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloud Academy will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloud Academy is the industry’s most innovative, vendor-neutral cloud technology training platform. Cloud Academy provides continuous learning solutions for individuals and enterprise teams for Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform, and the most popular cloud computing technologies. Ge...
Feb. 19, 2017 01:15 PM EST Reads: 680
The best way to leverage your Cloud Expo presence as a sponsor and exhibitor is to plan your news announcements around our events. The press covering Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo will have access to these releases and will amplify your news announcements. More than two dozen Cloud companies either set deals at our shows or have announced their mergers and acquisitions at Cloud Expo. Product announcements during our show provide your company with the most reach through our targeted audiences.
Feb. 19, 2017 12:45 PM EST Reads: 975
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Feb. 19, 2017 11:45 AM EST Reads: 950
SYS-CON Events announced today that Outlyer, a monitoring service for DevOps and operations teams, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Outlyer is a monitoring service for DevOps and Operations teams running Cloud, SaaS, Microservices and IoT deployments. Designed for today's dynamic environments that need beyond cloud-scale monitoring, we make monitoring effortless so you...
Feb. 19, 2017 11:30 AM EST Reads: 843
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @CloudExpo | @ThingsExpo, June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY and October 31 - November 2, 2017, Santa Clara Convention Center, CA. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.
Feb. 19, 2017 11:15 AM EST Reads: 1,592
Have you ever noticed how some IT people seem to lead successful, rewarding, and satisfying lives and careers, while others struggle? IT author and speaker Don Crawley uncovered the five principles that successful IT people use to build satisfying lives and careers and he shares them in this fast-paced, thought-provoking webinar. You'll learn the importance of striking a balance with technical skills and people skills, challenge your pre-existing ideas about IT customer service, and gain new in...
Feb. 19, 2017 11:15 AM EST Reads: 1,654
SYS-CON Events announced today that CrowdReviews.com has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CrowdReviews.com is a transparent online platform for determining which products and services are the best based on the opinion of the crowd. The crowd consists of Internet users that have experienced products and services first-hand and have an interest in letting other potential buyers...
Feb. 19, 2017 11:00 AM EST Reads: 1,554
With 10 simultaneous tracks, keynotes, general sessions and targeted breakout classes, Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo are two of the most important technology events of the year. Since its launch over eight years ago, Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo have presented a rock star faculty as well as showcased hundreds of sponsors and exhibitors! In this blog post, I provide 7 tips on how, as part of our world-class faculty, you can deliver one of the most popular sessions at our events. But before reading the...
Feb. 19, 2017 10:45 AM EST Reads: 7,638
While not quite mainstream yet, WebRTC is starting to gain ground with Carriers, Enterprises and Independent Software Vendors (ISV’s) alike. WebRTC makes it easy for developers to add audio and video communications into their applications by using Web browsers as their platform. But like any market, every customer engagement has unique requirements, as well as constraints. And of course, one size does not fit all. In her session at WebRTC Summit, Dr. Natasha Tamaskar, Vice President, Head of C...
Feb. 19, 2017 10:30 AM EST Reads: 6,527
TechTarget storage websites are the best online information resource for news, tips and expert advice for the storage, backup and disaster recovery markets. By creating abundant, high-quality editorial content across more than 140 highly targeted technology-specific websites, TechTarget attracts and nurtures communities of technology buyers researching their companies' information technology needs. By understanding these buyers' content consumption behaviors, TechTarget creates the purchase inte...
Feb. 19, 2017 09:45 AM EST Reads: 749
In the enterprise today, connected IoT devices are everywhere – both inside and outside corporate environments. The need to identify, manage, control and secure a quickly growing web of connections and outside devices is making the already challenging task of security even more important, and onerous. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Rich Boyer, CISO and Chief Architect for Security at NTT i3, will discuss new ways of thinking and the approaches needed to address the emerging challenges of securit...
Feb. 19, 2017 09:45 AM EST Reads: 1,152
As cloud adoption continues to transform business, today's global enterprises are challenged with managing a growing amount of information living outside of the data center. The rapid adoption of IoT and increasingly mobile workforce are exacerbating the problem. Ensuring secure data sharing and efficient backup poses capacity and bandwidth considerations as well as policy and regulatory compliance issues.
Feb. 19, 2017 09:15 AM EST Reads: 1,563
Almost two-thirds of companies either have or soon will have IoT as the backbone of their business. Though, IoT is far more complex than most firms expected with a majority of IoT projects having failed. How can you not get trapped in the pitfalls? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tony Shan, Chief IoTologist at Wipro, will introduce a holistic method of IoTification, which is the process of IoTifying the existing technology portfolios and business models to adopt and leverage IoT. He will delve in...
Feb. 19, 2017 09:15 AM EST Reads: 1,029
SYS-CON Events announced today that Conference Guru has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. A valuable conference experience generates new contacts, sales leads, potential strategic partners and potential investors; helps gather competitive intelligence and even provides inspiration for new products and services. Conference Guru works with conference organizers to pass great dea...
Feb. 19, 2017 07:45 AM EST Reads: 1,665
SYS-CON Events announced today that LeaseWeb USA, a cloud Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) provider, will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. LeaseWeb is one of the world's largest hosting brands. The company helps customers define, develop and deploy IT infrastructure tailored to their exact business needs, by combining various kinds cloud solutions.
Feb. 19, 2017 07:30 AM EST Reads: 1,412
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, discussed the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
Feb. 19, 2017 05:45 AM EST Reads: 4,731
WebRTC defines no default signaling protocol, causing fragmentation between WebRTC silos. SIP and XMPP provide possibilities, but come with considerable complexity and are not designed for use in a web environment. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Matthew Hodgson, technical co-founder of the Matrix.org, discussed how Matrix is a new non-profit Open Source Project that defines both a new HTTP-based standard for VoIP & IM signaling and provides reference implementations.
Feb. 19, 2017 05:00 AM EST Reads: 4,671