Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Web 2.0 Authors: Plutora Blog, Cloud Best Practices Network, Yakov Fain, Pat Romanski, Carmen Gonzalez

Related Topics: Java

Java: Article

"Java Is Dead, Long Live Java!" – The Future of Java

Lightweight Frameworks Like Hibernate, Spring, and HiveMind are the Future of Java

It seems that lately lots of writers have been bashing Java. Some people seem to think that Java has stagnated, and that the "hyper-enthusiasts" have left. Well, the rest of us are just quietly coding on a platform that is more exciting than ever. Other technologies like Ruby, PHP, .NET, or AJAX might get more hype and acclaim lately, but hype aside, Java still produces the majority of innovation in the software profession.

You can get a sense of Java's health by simply looking at how many projects are out there using Java. Pop on over to Sourceforge and look at the number of projects by language: http://sourceforge.net/softwaremap/trove_list.php?form_cat=160.

Certainly Sourceforge is not the final measure, but it's a reasonable reality check. Anyway, you'll find 17300+ Java projects, the most of any language. That's more than PHP (12675), Ruby (425), and .NET (3094 C#, 347 VB.Net) combined.

Because of its prominence, Java gets a lot of attention and with it much criticism, some of it valid. What many may not realize is that some big breakthroughs have arrived and that the Java development landscape is solving important problems. Let's take a view of where Java is going to go in the next year or two as these ideas gain traction.

The first big arena of innovation is the addition of scripting support. Some people rightly claim Ruby or Python is better the Java for some tasks. Groovy and Beanshell solve these same problems and will become a standard (in the JSR sense) part of the Java stack. Each offers something better than standalone scripting. Both integrate into a truly mixed environment with compiled bytecode and interpreted scripts interoperating smoothly. Beanshell's syntax offers as little surprise as possible for the Java developer and Groovy gives a Ruby-like syntactic efficiency, but can also be compiled to pure bytecode and reused seamlessly, a big improvement over JRuby or Jython.

Second, the days of heavyweight frameworks are gone. J2EE-style EJBs are out. Now, the lightweight frameworks like Hibernate, Spring, and HiveMind are the future of Java. The heavy Struts of the past is being replaced with two new directions: Struts Shale based on JSF and Struts Ti is a wholesale merge with Webwork. These projects share a common idea that the framework should stay out of the way of your object model. EJB3 takes the same view.

A third major innovation where Java leads is aspect-oriented programming (AOP). AOP will unclutter your code by moving "cross-cutting" concerns like logging and security to transparent method interceptors. AspectJ is the Rolls Royce for AOP, but Spring has lightweight AOP themes as does the new JBoss.

Fourth, the PHP crowd had a legitimate gripe that banging out a simple web page took too much work if you were using JSP and Struts. But our templating solutions like Velocity, Freemarker, and now Groovy don't make you choose between ultralight text generation and powerful mid-tier solutions. Groovlets should make for some rapid servlet solutions. For those people who really like PHP, keep it: Java 1.6 makes it the reference implementation for the new web scripting language bindings, so you can do your web views in PHP and use Java for model and controller.

Finally, Java's traditional strength in the tools arena just keeps increasing. Eclipse is the best IDE on the planet, and it appears that Eclipse has reached critical mass like Ant and JUnit did, in that people simply expect solutions that extend it. Eclipse's team coding capabilities for CVS and Subversion (via the Subclipse plugin) are first-rate. The refactoring and debugging support are top notch. Integration of standard tools like ant, compilers, JUnit, and javadocs are about as good as you can imagine.

So perhaps the hyper-enthusiasts have left and the buzzword mongers will proclaim that Java is dead. If Java is "dead," it's only because it was laid to rest so that a better, lighter, more agile, form of Java could replace it, so Long Live Java!

 

More Stories By Bryan W. Taylor

Bryan Taylor is a Senior Software Engineer at Rackspace Managed Hosting based
in San Antonio, Texas. He has designed and developed enterprise systems for
over 10 years.

Comments (21) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
ash 03/17/08 12:05:00 AM EDT

reply to #20:
hey maciej, i faced the very same problem that you had faced(even i had a athlon1700 +512 mb ram). but after upgraded my ram to 1 gb, eclipse runs smoothly. eclipse is a ram guzzler for sure, but its necessity undermines everything else.

Maciej Grela 02/08/06 07:38:18 AM EST

Hmm, Eclipse is the best. I`d say s/best/beast/ . Ever tried to run it ? For me its the sloooowest software i`ve used. And I have an athlon1700 + 512 MB. I have yet to see a fast and slick java application which has nice features and doesn`t eat my whole ram.

Hal Arnold 02/06/06 03:13:42 AM EST

Nice article; but one niggling point: your assertion that Eclipse "is the best IDE on the planet". Those of us that use Idea would beg to differ.

Rick O'Shay 02/04/06 03:02:31 AM EST

Classic JDJ article: a misinformed pile of google scrapings that appears to have been stitched together at the last minute. The future of Java is EJB 3.0 and Java 5.0 with Facelets and JSF. EJB 3.0 embodies Hibernate. Java 5.0 supports aspect-oriented features. JSF replaces Struts and Facelets replace Tapestry and other frameworks with a standard. What these technologies have in common is the mind-boggling simplicity of using them. If you want to write about the future of Java you should look at the new features and where they are going with it.

Rick O'Shay 02/04/06 03:00:51 AM EST

Classic JDJ article: a misinformed pile of google scrapings that appears to have been stitched together at the last minute. The future of Java is EJB 3.0 and Java 5.0 with Facelets and JSF. EJB 3.0 embodies Hibernate. Java 5.0 supports aspect-oriented features. JSF replaces Struts and Facelets replace Tapestry and other frameworks with a standard. What these technologies have in common is the mind-boggling simplicity of using them. If you want to write about the future of Java you should look at the new features and where they are going with it.

Bryan Taylor 01/23/06 11:20:20 PM EST

More responses from the author...

Several people take issue with my point that "Eclipse is the best IDE on the planet". No one who objected had any rebutal to the reason I gave why Eclipse is the best: it has reached critical mass as an open source extensible platform whose community is assuring that all important tools work with it.

Anonymous Kuhirt threw us a barb: "afraid of .NET, are we?" Yes, very much so. For two primary reasons: (a) vendor lock-in and (b) security. The java community has embraced open standards and open source, and Microsoft simply doesn't offer that. I don't see much traffic crossing that divide in either direction.

Finally, some people seem to think that because I'm pro-Java, I advocate it as the one-size fits all language. Of course, I never said that. In fact, my first point about groovy and beanshell filling a gap pretty much guarantees that I don't think programming is a one size fits all task. The same goes when I touted PHP interoperability. It would be hard for me to argue against C being the right tool for some tasks, since java and my OS are all written in it. C is great for performance critical tasks, and Java plays along with C via JNI as Eclipse's SWT proves. Sometimes you do need to control memory use more than Java allows. But choosing C without specific evidence that you need the extra performance is simply a form of premature optimization. In most enterprise settings, where time to market and long term maintainability drive the economics, it is an very wrong choice.

Disappointed 01/16/06 04:43:58 AM EST

I think he's a Senior Engineer with 10 year experience...

Jman 01/16/06 04:42:07 AM EST

Do JDJ publish college kid articles these days?

Disappointed 01/16/06 04:38:57 AM EST

Nothing wrong with the article except that it has no stuff just fluff. Everything is old news and provide no meaty support for personal opinions. I think its recieving so much flake not because people disagree generally to the stand points, but because we really so seldom see such a unprofessional article being written.

Anonymous Architect 01/16/06 04:14:06 AM EST

The most naive article ever! nuff said.

Reader 01/16/06 04:05:30 AM EST

Eclipse the best IDE on the Planet??? Its great, but I wouldn't say best. Personally I prefer IDEA, even thought I use eclipse on a day to day basis (More than Idea) because its the company standard. Some people think Visual Studio is King, which is also justifiable. I don't wanna get into a fanatic religious war on IDEs, but I'm just annoyed by unsupported claims. It totally takes away the credibility of the whole article (even though the article is not related).

Anonymous Kuhirt 01/15/06 11:28:32 AM EST

"Java remains at the top today and for at least then next few years"

This is exacly the self-reassurance I was talking about. The "rejoice - we're at the top" feeling (afraid of .NET, are we?). However, being at the "top" does lead only one way: down
(BTW: there are areas where COBOL is still at the "top", too. Not because of technological merits and active development, but because of huge amounts of code written in the times where people thought about COBOL like you think about Java nowadays).

As someone else said once (I forgot the name): "If your only tool is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail."
Likewise if everything you know and care about is Java, you have to treat every task within the limits of Java. However, I can easily name you tasks where Java would be far from a good choice - especially if you step out of this year's hype word collection (AJAX, Spring, etc.): You'll find that Java is by no means the end of all and that far from all shortcomings has been addressed successfully.

Development like Java 1.5 (mostly syntactic sugar) and popular add-ons to Java (techniques / librarie) like AOP, Hibernate are in fact band-aids, covering shortcoming of Java which add up over time, giving Java that "crufty" feeling it has.

And last but not least - if you only know and care about Java (with that elitistic feeling of "oh, but we are at the top"), you'll be condemned to re-invent solutions / techniques which have been here long before ..

Bryan Taylor 01/14/06 04:44:15 PM EST

As the author... I'd like to respond to some of the comments.

Anonymous Kuhirt wrote "Only people admitting that there are shortcomings and who are willing to look over the (Java) fence are able to keep Java from becoming the next Cobol)." It appears he didn't understand that this is the theme of the article. Java remains at the top today and for at least then next few years precisely because the Java community has seen and successfully addressed shortcomings.

Mr. Frustrated with the Writer wrote "The entire article focused primarily on web development and minor advances in the development experience." Only my fourth point and arguably half of part of my second point concern web development. My discussion of Groovy, Beanshell, Hibernate, Spring, Hivemind, AspectJ, and Eclipse do not concern web development.

He also wrote "AJAX is *not* a technology, it's a technique, and one, at that, which works very nicely with Java as the server element." Setting aside semantic bickering over the difference between a technology and a technique, I agree and said nothing to the contrary. The only reference to AJAX my the article concerns other commentators who over-hype AJAX in java bashing articles. Specifically, there was a widely circulated article in Business Week recently called something like "Java? It's so Nineties" that casts AJAX as one of the reasons for Java's supposed decline. This point is completely nonsense, to be sure, but the nonsense didn't originate from me.

Anonymous Kuhirt 01/14/06 06:52:43 AM EST

Sorry, this article is just stupid. E. g. the

"Eclipse is the best IDE"
opinion.

No matter how great something is, there is no "best IDE" the same way as there is no "best language". Anybody who is seriously thinking that there is only one true way for every problem on the planet can't be taken serious and should stop littering websites with his wishfull thinking ..

(I am a software engineer and use Java most of the time. I see such non-sense "XY is the best" comments as the self-reassurance of blind followers of XY
and most of the time it is a sure sign that XY's best days lay in the past. Only people admitting that there are shortcomings and who are willing to look over the (Java) fence are able to keep Java from becoming the next Cobol).

Mr. Frustrated with the Writer 01/13/06 12:59:11 PM EST

The entire article focused primarily on web development and minor advances in the development experience. If nothing else, this would suggest that critic's complaint that innovation has left the language is true! All of the big development technologies and techniques that have become part of the Java world (Hibernate, Spring) have been ported quickly to other languages, leveling the court as far as language-supporting technologies are concerned. I was happy to see the changes that 1.5 brought along, especially generics since that's been a problem that had been solved far too long ago to leave out of Java. But as far as breakthroughs are concerned, I'm with the critics on this one. If I had to pose one challenge to the Java world, it would be to free us developers of some of the limitations of Java that don't exist with other languages; i.e. running in a JVM, we get access to such a limited memory space that anyone writing a memory-intensive server application is forced to work in another language - something I've met several times in my work.

In all, though, what bothered me the most was the actual words of the article. I've unsubscribed from the JDJ for a reason (since they aparently fired all of their proofreaders)! AJAX is *not* a technology, it's a technique, and one, at that, which works very nicely with Java as the server element. "Some people rightly claim Ruby or Python is better the Java for some tasks." - indeed.

To the commenters, don't call "long live Java" as if you could predict the new languages and technologies on the horizon. Those who will hold strongly to their Java in good days and bad, as other stronger more innovative software paradigms come to life, will be left in the dust. Maintain your job security and adapt. Long live the next best platform.

Donald Fraser 01/13/06 08:31:58 AM EST

I am a Java advocate, but I have many gripes with the Java language. The sort of gripes I have are similar reasons why Java evolved out of C/C++ in the first place.
For example memory not being released from objects after they have gone out of scope. The Java solution was to remove the responsibility of memory management from the programmer and place it in the JVM. There are many other things that Java improved on in the C/C++ language but there are many more things that the language still lacks.
For example why can I still get null pointer exceptions? Bad programming! This problem can actually be solved by the language. Just take a look at the Eiffel programming language - it pioneered the concept of "design by contract" which solves boundary conditions and assignments to all parameters thus eliminating the null pointer exception problem along with a number of other problems.
How about the super class change method name problem? I change the name of a method in a super class and all the sub-classes that overrode that method are now broken - but my programme still compiles! The Delphi programming language had that one sorted out from day one!
These are just some of the reasons I believe Java has a limited life. Yes I believe Java will be here to stay, just like C and C++ are still with us today but there will come a time when everyone else is using the "other" language simply because its better. Unless of course Java evolves to meet these modern programming concepts, let us hope it does, long live Java!

pcdinh 01/11/06 11:54:30 AM EST

Eclipse is a very good universal IDE. But Netbeans 5.0 make me feel more comfortable when working with Java.

Li Moore 01/10/06 06:14:16 AM EST

Google makes extensive use of the Java platform. Large parts of popular Google products are written in Java. We also use Java in many internal systems and products under development.

Anonymous Brave guy 01/10/06 06:03:24 AM EST

Java has theoretical limitations that mean it will always have difficulty keeping up with a well-optimised C++ program.

And of course, there are still the same fundamental weaknesses in Java's design that there always have been...

Java doesn't have value types, so everything's dynamically allocated by default.

Not everything is an object, so you have boxing overheads even in simple things like containers unless you use generics.

Those generics have only just been introduced into the language, and are a poor imitation of C++ templates, offering few of the advantages that template metaprogramming has been providing to serious, high performance libraries in C++ for a few years now.

Java's floating point model is constrained by its portability requirements -- for a while it was even theoretically impossible for a JVM to meet them, IIRC -- which unavoidably prevents the use of many math optimisations.

I could go on, but I'm getting bored, so I'll leave the record straight enough and stop there.

xtracto 01/10/06 05:58:59 AM EST

I like Java (as a language) a lot, I have used it for enterprise level applications (supply chain management software) and currently I am using it to make market based simulations.

The wrong thing about Java is the Virtual machine implementation. You can blame Sun for that. If Java is slow, grabs lots of memory and all that it is because of the virtual machine, not because of the language. A language is just a BNF diagram specification which describes the syntax of the program, and all of its reserved words.

What Java needs is a better (less memory and faster) implementation of the libraries it has and the virtual machine to run the programs. As an example, almost everyone who has used C# or any other .NET program can see the applications run quite fast.

Contrary Opinion 01/10/06 05:18:25 AM EST

Wasn't it Peter Yared who in BusinessWeek last month was saying that developers far and wide are creating a new generation of Internet-based applications with LAMP and related technologies rather than with Java?

Sure, Yared is an AJAX fan. But when someone who was previously at Sun and who led
the J2SE team, delivering JDK 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 says something like this, you kinda can't help paying attention.

@ThingsExpo Stories
Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, had reached 30,000 page views on his home page - http://RobertoMedrano.SYS-CON.com/ - on the SYS-CON family of online magazines, which includes Cloud Computing Journal, Internet of Things Journal, Big Data Journal, and SOA World Magazine. He is a recognized executive in the information technology fields of SOA, internet security, governance, and compliance. He has extensive experience with both start-ups and large companies, having been involved at the beginning of four IT industries: EDA, Open Systems, Computer Security and now SOA.
When it comes to the Internet of Things, hooking up will get you only so far. If you want customers to commit, you need to go beyond simply connecting products. You need to use the devices themselves to transform how you engage with every customer and how you manage the entire product lifecycle. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sean Lorenz, Technical Product Manager for Xively at LogMeIn, will show how “product relationship management” can help you leverage your connected devices and the data they generate about customer usage and product performance to deliver extremely compelling and reliabl...
SYS-CON Events announced today that GENBAND, a leading developer of real time communications software solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's WebRTC Summit, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The GENBAND team will be on hand to demonstrate their newest product, Kandy. Kandy is a communications Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) that enables companies to seamlessly integrate more human communications into their Web and mobile applications - creating more engaging experiences for their customers and boosting collaboration and productiv...
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, shared some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, a...
The industrial software market has treated data with the mentality of “collect everything now, worry about how to use it later.” We now find ourselves buried in data, with the pervasive connectivity of the (Industrial) Internet of Things only piling on more numbers. There’s too much data and not enough information. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Bob Gates, Global Marketing Director, GE’s Intelligent Platforms business, to discuss how realizing the power of IoT, software developers are now focused on understanding how industrial data can create intelligence for industrial operations. Imagine ...
Operational Hadoop and the Lambda Architecture for Streaming Data Apache Hadoop is emerging as a distributed platform for handling large and fast incoming streams of data. Predictive maintenance, supply chain optimization, and Internet-of-Things analysis are examples where Hadoop provides the scalable storage, processing, and analytics platform to gain meaningful insights from granular data that is typically only valuable from a large-scale, aggregate view. One architecture useful for capturing and analyzing streaming data is the Lambda Architecture, representing a model of how to analyze rea...
The 3rd International @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo - to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY - is now accepting submissions to demo smart cars on the Expo Floor. Smart car sponsorship benefits include general brand exposure and increasing engagement with the developer ecosystem.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Vitria Technology, Inc. will exhibit at SYS-CON’s @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Vitria will showcase the company’s new IoT Analytics Platform through live demonstrations at booth #330. Vitria’s IoT Analytics Platform, fully integrated and powered by an operational intelligence engine, enables customers to rapidly build and operationalize advanced analytics to deliver timely business outcomes for use cases across the industrial, enterprise, and consumer segments.
When it comes to the Internet of Things, hooking up will get you only so far. If you want customers to commit, you need to go beyond simply connecting products. You need to use the devices themselves to transform how you engage with every customer and how you manage the entire product lifecycle. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sean Lorenz, Technical Product Manager for Xively at LogMeIn, will show how “product relationship management” can help you leverage your connected devices and the data they generate about customer usage and product performance to deliver extremely compelling and reliabl...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place June 9-11, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place November 3–5, 2015 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SoftLayer operates a global cloud infrastructure platform built for Internet scale. With a global footprint of data centers and network points of presence, SoftLayer provides infrastructure as a service to leading-edge customers ranging from ...
The explosion of connected devices / sensors is creating an ever-expanding set of new and valuable data. In parallel the emerging capability of Big Data technologies to store, access, analyze, and react to this data is producing changes in business models under the umbrella of the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular within the Insurance industry, IoT appears positioned to enable deep changes by altering relationships between insurers, distributors, and the insured. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Sick, a Senior Manager and Big Data Architect within Ernst and Young's Financial Servi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Open Data Centers (ODC), a carrier-neutral colocation provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Open Data Centers is a carrier-neutral data center operator in New Jersey and New York City offering alternative connectivity options for carriers, service providers and enterprise customers.
The IoT market is projected to be $1.9 trillion tidal wave that’s bigger than the combined market for smartphones, tablets and PCs. While IoT is widely discussed, what not being talked about are the monetization opportunities that are created from ubiquitous connectivity and the ensuing avalanche of data. While we cannot foresee every service that the IoT will enable, we should future-proof operations by preparing to monetize them with extremely agile systems.
There’s Big Data, then there’s really Big Data from the Internet of Things. IoT is evolving to include many data possibilities like new types of event, log and network data. The volumes are enormous, generating tens of billions of logs per day, which raise data challenges. Early IoT deployments are relying heavily on both the cloud and managed service providers to navigate these challenges. Learn about IoT, Big Data and deployments processing massive data volumes from wearables, utilities and other machines.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CodeFutures, a leading supplier of database performance tools, has been named a “Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. CodeFutures is an independent software vendor focused on providing tools that deliver database performance tools that increase productivity during database development and increase database performance and scalability during production.
The explosion of connected devices / sensors is creating an ever-expanding set of new and valuable data. In parallel the emerging capability of Big Data technologies to store, access, analyze, and react to this data is producing changes in business models under the umbrella of the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular within the Insurance industry, IoT appears positioned to enable deep changes by altering relationships between insurers, distributors, and the insured. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Sick, a Senior Manager and Big Data Architect within Ernst and Young's Financial Servi...
The major cloud platforms defy a simple, side-by-side analysis. Each of the major IaaS public-cloud platforms offers their own unique strengths and functionality. Options for on-site private cloud are diverse as well, and must be designed and deployed while taking existing legacy architecture and infrastructure into account. Then the reality is that most enterprises are embarking on a hybrid cloud strategy and programs. In this Power Panel at 15th Cloud Expo (http://www.CloudComputingExpo.com), moderated by Ashar Baig, Research Director, Cloud, at Gigaom Research, Nate Gordon, Director of T...
“In the past year we've seen a lot of stabilization of WebRTC. You can now use it in production with a far greater degree of certainty. A lot of the real developments in the past year have been in things like the data channel, which will enable a whole new type of application," explained Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Intelligent Systems Services will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Established in 1994, Intelligent Systems Services Inc. is located near Washington, DC, with representatives and partners nationwide. ISS’s well-established track record is based on the continuous pursuit of excellence in designing, implementing and supporting nationwide clients’ mission-critical systems. ISS has completed many successful projects in Healthcare, Commercial, Manufacturing, ...
PubNub on Monday has announced that it is partnering with IBM to bring its sophisticated real-time data streaming and messaging capabilities to Bluemix, IBM’s cloud development platform. “Today’s app and connected devices require an always-on connection, but building a secure, scalable solution from the ground up is time consuming, resource intensive, and error-prone,” said Todd Greene, CEO of PubNub. “PubNub enables web, mobile and IoT developers building apps on IBM Bluemix to quickly add scalable realtime functionality with minimal effort and cost.”