|By Lori MacVittie||
|September 15, 2009 05:45 AM EDT||
Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. One of the topics surrounding cloud computing that continues to rear its ugly head is the problem of portability across clouds. Avoiding vendor lock-in has been problematic since the day the first line of proprietary code was written and cloud computing does nothing to address this. If anything, cloud makes this worse because one of its premises is that users (that’s you, IT staff) need not concern themselves with the underlying infrastructure. It’s a service, right, so you just use it and don’t worry about it.
Let’s assume for a moment that you can easily move applications from data center to cloud to cloud. Plenty of folks are working on that, but very few of them address the “rest of the story”: the metastructure.
Metastructure contains the metadata that describes the network, application network, and security infrastructure providing all those “don’t worry about” services cloud providers offer. Load balancing, firewalls, IPS, IDS, application acceleration, secure remote access. If you’ve spent time with your cloud provider tweaking those services – or configuring them yourself – then moving to a new cloud provider is not only a huge investment in time, it’s actually going to be painful because you’re essentially going to have to recreate every metastructure configuration again.
Yes, you’ve done this inside your own data center for years. Every forklift replacement or upgrade of infrastructure has come with its own load of baggage in the configuration arena. Switching out vendor equipment – especially core components – can be extremely painful, especially when configurations need to essentially be “translated” between them. But cloud makes this worse because technically speaking you don’t even have access to the existing configurations. You can’t see them, you can’t have them, and you can’t run them through whatever “upgrade” or “migration” script your new vendor offers to ease the process.
Are you depressed yet?
There’s been some talk of including metastructure data with the virtual machine, but the problem with this is that it almost always requires that the meta data be wrapped up using a proprietary API, such as is provided by VMware. That’s okay if you restrict yourself to only cloud providers that use the same virtualization technology, but not okay if you want to be able to make a move from one technology to another. It also assumes that the metadata is specific to the infrastructure, which is even more unlikely when moving between cloud providers.
HOW ABOUT A CLOUD-BASED CMDB (Configuration Management Database)?
There are several ongoing efforts to address this very scenario because it is so painful. Most of them would, if adopted, require vendors to implement support for a specific standard so that configurations can be managed and exchanged in that standard format. That makes sense, that’s how we’ve always handled translation of data between disparate systems that don’t speak the same language. In the application world we call the process of mapping one format to another “integration” and you can easily evoke a look of terror on a co-worker’s face just by saying the word within their range of hearing. Go ahead, try it. Just make sure they aren’t carrying anything heavy that can be easily thrown at you when you do.
CMDB (Configuration Management Database) technology is another method of addressing the problem of, well, managing configurations. These solutions store configuration of a wide variety of infrastructure solutions – from routers and switches to web and application servers to application delivery controllers. They do a great job of managing configuration and can even “push” configuration out to devices if so desired. But the configurations stored and managed in a CMDB are product-specific, not generic, so they can’t adequately today address the problem of portability.
You can probably see where this is going: a cross between CMDB and a nice, industry-wide standard would probably do the trick, wouldn’t it? And if it was public (in the sense that any application or service is public on the network – that is, accessible via the Internet to any cloud provider or customer site) then cloud providers and organizations alike could take advantage of that configuration management mechanism and use it to their advantage. Portability becomes possible rather than fantasy.
Cloud providers and organizations alike are likely to stop right there. Sharing configuration of infrastructure and core components is just asking for trouble. If ever such a cloud-based CMDB were compromised, well…let’s just say it would be A Very Bad Thing.
But what if the actual metadata, the configuration information, were stored either in the enterprise or the cloud provider (or both), and merely pushed and pulled via a public mechanism on-demand? Configuration isn’t changed all that often and if an organization is moving between clouds they certainly know when they’re doing it. If there was some mechanism through which metastructure could be published and to which infrastructure could subscribe then when changes were made or providers changed that metastructure data could be easily grabbed from the public cloud-CMDB system (cloud catalog, anyone?) and interpreted into product-specific configuration by the products themselves.
Think of it like SOA clients pulling WSDL (Web Services Description Language) from a UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) server. The SOA client pulls the WSDL, which describes the service(s), configures itself appropriately, and then is able to make use of those services. The intent of introducing UDDI was a service-catalog that could be polled on-demand to provide the latest information about the service and describe it in an abstract, vendor-neutral way such that any client could access any service, regardless of implementation language or environment. Sounds a lot like what we want for infrastructure portability, doesn’t it?
That’s where PubSubHubub comes in. While this draft standard for a publish-subscribe system is generally being leveraged by software developers to enable faster sharing of information across the Internet, it is also a fine example of a system that could be used by infrastructure 2.0 solutions to share metastructure. Consider the existence of a public PubSubhubub Hub, like Google’s public PubSubHubub Hub, and how it might be leveraged to share metastructure between clouds or the organization and the cloud.
Note that XMPP is used today by at least one cloud provider to enable distributed cloud management in a nature very similar to that of PubSubhubhub.
In any case, the specific implementation of the configuration “hub” is relatively unimportant; what’s important is that (a) customers can publish a vendor-neutral metastructure to an isolated channel that communicates their specific infrastructure needs and (b) providers can subscribe, at will, to customer topics and retrieve metastructure in a way that allows their infrastructure to in turn configuration itself (or be configured by the provider’s system, as is required by the provider’s implementation).
Early on it would be necessary for the cloud provider to provide the “translation” and configuration services simply because even if a metastructure standard existed today (and it doesn’t) it would take months and possibly years before all the possible infrastructure vendors were able to update their systems to interpret the standard. If the provider implements a configuration “gateway”, however, he can immediately take advantage of such a standard and use existing skills and knowledge gained from its automation and orchestration of its cloud to configure the infrastructure appropriately based on the metastructure. This has the added advantage of “hiding” the infrastructure implementation from the outside world, which for some providers is a very important thing to do.
SOME CONFIGURATIONS ARE INHERENTLY VENDOR SPECIFIC
That’s okay for two reasons: first, we ensure that the metadata description is XML-based, because it’s extensible. If we build into the standard a way to extend it naturally such as is provided with XML the interpreters (configuration “gateways”) can either (a) translate if it can or (b) ignore.
Consider the use of OVF (Open Virtualization Format) to further describe what is called a Virtual Machine Contract (VMC):
For each virtual system, the associated metadata is described in a set of specific sections. The VirtualHardwareSection describes the virtual hardware required including the amount of memory, number of CPUs, information about network interfaces, etc. The OperatingSystemSection describes the guest operating system that will run in the virtual system. The ProductSection provides basic information such as the name and vendor of the appliance and can also specify a set of properties that can be used to customize the appliance.
While VMC is very basic at this point, it’s a good start at providing the foundation for building out a more complete, standards-based description of the metastructure necessary to configure an infrastructure to deploy a specific application in a virtual machine format. Using this as the basis for metadata exchange – when fully described – via a public hub could alleviate most of the issues with sharing infrastructure metadata (metastructure) across clouds in a generally vendor non-specific manner. In other words, portability of both the virtual machine and the specific infrastructure configurations necessary to optimally execute and deliver the application to the end user in the most fast and secure manner possible.
We’re nowhere near this point, by the way. VMC needs to be fleshed out as far as standard metadata goes for infrastructure (perhaps a good chore for the SRI Infrastructure 2.0 Working Group) and vendors would need to adopt and extend out the ProductSection of VMC for product specific configuration that isn’t included in the base format. And PubSubHubub would need to be proven to be a secure method of exchanging the metastructure across clouds. What is likely is that as we move forward trying to extend the plateau of collaboration down the stack toward the core infrastructure is that a new set of tools, products, solutions, and services will emerge to fill the unavoidable gaps in the standards, e.g. a service-based cloud configuration hub offering translation of proprietary metastructure data to some other proprietary metastructure data.
Perhaps there’s a better way overall, and OVF/VMC and PubSubHubub will simply remain in our memories as the catalyst and template for a different set of standards providing portability across clouds. But there is a way to provide this level of portability and collaboration across clouds, across the infrastructure and the application. The need – and perhaps more importantly the belief that it’s necessary to address the need – is growing.
UPDATE: Christofer Hoff pointed out that vCloud has been submitted to the DMTF for standardization, technically making it "open" rather than "proprietary." It is still only implemented by VMware technologies, so for the time being it might as well be proprietary, but this may change in the future.
Related blogs & articles:
- Virtual Machine Contracts for Data Center and Cloud Computing Environments [PDF]
- Draft: PubSubHubub Core 0.2
- DMTF Virtual Management Initiative (OVF Specification)
- Who owns application delivery meta-data in the cloud?
- More on the Meta-data Menagerie
- Governance: Service Catalogs and the Cloud
- OVF: A few layers short of a full stack
- Interoperability between clouds requires more than just VM portability
"We work in the area of Big Data analytics and Big Data analytics is a very crowded space - you have Hadoop, ETL, warehousing, visualization and there's a lot of effort trying to get these tools to talk to each other," explained Mukund Deshpande, head of the Analytics practice at Accelerite, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jul. 2, 2016 01:30 AM EDT Reads: 847
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann returns to 'DevOps at Cloud Expo 2016' as Conference Chair The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "DevOps is set to be one of the most profound disruptions to hit IT in decades," said Andi Mann. "It is a natural extension of cloud computing, and I have seen both firsthand and in independent research the fantastic results DevOps delivers. So I am excited t...
Jul. 2, 2016 01:00 AM EDT Reads: 764
Basho Technologies has announced the latest release of Basho Riak TS, version 1.3. Riak TS is an enterprise-grade NoSQL database optimized for Internet of Things (IoT). The open source version enables developers to download the software for free and use it in production as well as make contributions to the code and develop applications around Riak TS. Enhancements to Riak TS make it quick, easy and cost-effective to spin up an instance to test new ideas and build IoT applications. In addition to...
Jul. 1, 2016 08:30 PM EDT Reads: 807
IoT is rapidly changing the way enterprises are using data to improve business decision-making. In order to derive business value, organizations must unlock insights from the data gathered and then act on these. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, and Peter Shashkin, Head of Development Department at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how one organization leveraged IoT, cloud technology and data analysis to improve customer experiences and effi...
Jul. 1, 2016 06:30 PM EDT Reads: 785
Internet of @ThingsExpo has announced today that Chris Matthieu has been named tech chair of Internet of @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 6thInternet of @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Jul. 1, 2016 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 551
Presidio has received the 2015 EMC Partner Services Quality Award from EMC Corporation for achieving outstanding service excellence and customer satisfaction as measured by the EMC Partner Services Quality (PSQ) program. Presidio was also honored as the 2015 EMC Americas Marketing Excellence Partner of the Year and 2015 Mid-Market East Partner of the Year. The EMC PSQ program is a project-specific survey program designed for partners with Service Partner designations to solicit customer feedbac...
Jul. 1, 2016 05:30 PM EDT Reads: 798
The cloud promises new levels of agility and cost-savings for Big Data, data warehousing and analytics. But it’s challenging to understand all the options – from IaaS and PaaS to newer services like HaaS (Hadoop as a Service) and BDaaS (Big Data as a Service). In her session at @BigDataExpo at @ThingsExpo, Hannah Smalltree, a director at Cazena, provided an educational overview of emerging “as-a-service” options for Big Data in the cloud. This is critical background for IT and data profession...
Jul. 1, 2016 05:15 PM EDT Reads: 659
"There's a growing demand from users for things to be faster. When you think about all the transactions or interactions users will have with your product and everything that is between those transactions and interactions - what drives us at Catchpoint Systems is the idea to measure that and to analyze it," explained Leo Vasiliou, Director of Web Performance Engineering at Catchpoint Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York Ci...
Jul. 1, 2016 04:15 PM EDT Reads: 270
Ask someone to architect an Internet of Things (IoT) solution and you are guaranteed to see a reference to the cloud. This would lead you to believe that IoT requires the cloud to exist. However, there are many IoT use cases where the cloud is not feasible or desirable. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products at Bsquare Corporation, will discuss the strategies that exist to extend intelligence directly to IoT devices and sensors, freeing them from the constraints of ...
Jul. 1, 2016 03:15 PM EDT Reads: 340
Connected devices and the industrial internet are growing exponentially every year with Cisco expecting 50 billion devices to be in operation by 2020. In this period of growth, location-based insights are becoming invaluable to many businesses as they adopt new connected technologies. Knowing when and where these devices connect from is critical for a number of scenarios in supply chain management, disaster management, emergency response, M2M, location marketing and more. In his session at @Th...
Jul. 1, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,437
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
Jul. 1, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 357
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
Jul. 1, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,053
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform and how we integrate our thinking to solve complicated problems. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm ...
Jul. 1, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 708
Apixio Inc. has raised $19.3 million in Series D venture capital funding led by SSM Partners with participation from First Analysis, Bain Capital Ventures and Apixio’s largest angel investor. Apixio will dedicate the proceeds toward advancing and scaling products powered by its cognitive computing platform, further enabling insights for optimal patient care. The Series D funding comes as Apixio experiences strong momentum and increasing demand for its HCC Profiler solution, which mines unstruc...
Jul. 1, 2016 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 694
SYS-CON Events has announced today that Roger Strukhoff has been named conference chair of Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 19th Cloud Expo and 6th @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "The Internet of Things brings trillions of dollars of opportunity to developers and enterprise IT, no matter how you measure it," stated Roger Strukhoff. "More importantly, it leverages the power of devices and the Interne...
Jul. 1, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 664
In addition to all the benefits, IoT is also bringing new kind of customer experience challenges - cars that unlock themselves, thermostats turning houses into saunas and baby video monitors broadcasting over the internet. This list can only increase because while IoT services should be intuitive and simple to use, the delivery ecosystem is a myriad of potential problems as IoT explodes complexity. So finding a performance issue is like finding the proverbial needle in the haystack.
Jul. 1, 2016 10:45 AM EDT Reads: 588
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to imp...
Jul. 1, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,118
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...
Jul. 1, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 542
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
Jul. 1, 2016 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,217
The IoT is changing the way enterprises conduct business. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how businesses can gain an edge over competitors by empowering consumers to take control through IoT. He cited examples such as a Washington, D.C.-based sports club that leveraged IoT and the cloud to develop a comprehensive booking system. He also highlighted how IoT can revitalize and restore outdated business models, making them profitable ...
Jul. 1, 2016 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 713